Main Article Content

S. Niro
A. Fratianni
G. Panfili
L. Falasca
L. Cinquanta
MD R. Alam


goji berries, Lycium barbarum, superfruit, wolfberries


The nutritional profile of fresh and dried goji berries cultivated in Italy was investigated. The obtained data confirm goji berries as a source of nutritional and healthy components, such as vitamin E, minerals and fibre. Taking into account the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for minerals and vitamins established by the Commission of the European Communities, Goji berries provide significant amounts of dietary fibre and zeaxanthin and can be declared on the label as a potential source of vitamins E and C. Moreover, dried goji berries can be declared as a source of K, P, Cu, Fe Mn, Zn
Abstract 2685 | PDF Downloads 2900


AACC. 1995. Determination of Soluble, Insoluble and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products (Method 32-07). Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. 9th Ed. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, MN.
Amagase H., and Farnsworth N. R. 2011. A review of botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, clinical relevance in efficacy and safety of Lycium barbarum fruit (Goji). Food Res Int44: 702–1717.
Amagase H., Sun B., and Borek C. 2009. Lycium barbarum (goji) juice improves in vivo antioxidant biomarkers in serum of healthy adults. Nutr Res 29: 19–25.
Amagase H., and Nance D. M. 2008. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study of the general effects of a standardized lyceum barbarum (goji) juice, Go Chi. J Alternative Complement Med, 14: 403–412.
AOAC 1995. Total, Insoluble and Soluble Dietary Fiber in Food-Enzymatic-Gravimetric Method (Method 991.43) MESTRIS Buffer. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
AOAC. 2000. “Official Methods of Analysis” 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCa.
Bellaio G., Carnevale E., and Bona S. 2016. Preliminary studies on sensory, instrumental and chemical evaluation of dried goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries. Acta Horticulturae, 1120:515.
Chang R. C. and So K. F. 2008. Use of anti-aging herbal medicine, lyceum barbarum, against aging-associated diseases. What do we know so far. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 28: 643–652.
Cinquanta L., Albanese D., Cuccurullo G. and Di Matteo M. 2010.Effect on Orange Juice of Batch Pasteurization in an Improved Pilot-Scale Microwave Oven. J Food Sc 75: E46-E50.
Cuccurullo G., Giordano L., Albanese D., Cinquanta L., and Di Matteo M. 2012. Infrared thermography assisted control for apples microwave drying. J Food Eng112: 319–325.
Donno D., Beccaro G.L., Mellano M.G., Cerutti A.K., and Bounous G. 2014.Goji berry fruit (Lycium spp.): antioxidant compound fingerprint and bioactivity evaluation. J Funct Food18: 1070–1085.
Endes Z., Uslu N., Özcan M. M., and Er F. 2015. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and mineral contents of goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. J Agroaliment Processes Technol 21(1): 36-40.
Fratianni A., Albanese D., Mignogna R., Cinquanta L., Panfili G. and Di Matteo M. 2013. Degradation of carotenoids in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) during drying process. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 68: 241–246.
Fratianni A., Giuzio L., Di Criscio T, Zina F, and Panfili G. 2013. Response of carotenoids and tocols of durum wheat in relation to water stress and sulfur fertilization. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61: 2583?2590.
Fratianni A., Irano M., Panfili G., Acquistucci R. 2005. Estimation of color of durum wheat. Comparison of WSB, HPLC, and reflectance colorimeter measurements. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 2373-2378.
Fratianni A., Mignogna R., Niro S., and Panfili G. 2015. Determination of lutein from fruit and vegetables through an alkaline hydrolysis extraction method and HPLC analysis. J Food Sc 80: 12.
Inbaraj B.S., Lu H., Hung C.F., Wu W.B., Lin C.L., and Chen B.H., 2008. Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC–DAD–APCI–MS. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 47: 812-818.
Isabelle M., Lee B.L., Lim M.T, Koh W.P., Huang D., and Ong C.N. 2010. Antioxidant activity and profiles of common vegetables in Singapore. Food Chemistry 120: 993–1003.
Kulczy?ski B., and Gramza-Micha?owska A., 2016. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum): Composition and Health Effects – a Review Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 66(2): 67–75.
LARN - Livelli di assunzione di riferimento per la popolazione italiana Revisione 2014.
Llorent-Martínez E.J., Fernández-de Córdova M.L., Ortega-Barrales P., and Ruiz-Medina A. 2013. Characterization and comparison of the chemical composition of exotic superfoods. Microchem J 110: 444–451.
Mignogna R., Fratianni A., Niro S., and Panfili G. 2015. Tocopherol and tocotrienol analysis as a tool to discriminate different fat ingredients in bakery products. Food Control 54: 31-38.
Mikulic-Petkovsek M., Schmitzer V., Slatnar A., Stampar F., and Veberic R. 2012a. Composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species, J Food S c77: 1064-1070.
Mikulic-Petkovsek M., Slatnar A., Stampar F., and Veberic R. 2012b. HPLC–MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species. Food Chem 135: 2138–2146.
Naozuka J., Vieira E.C., Nogueira A.N., and. Oliveira P.V. 2011. Elemental analysis of nuts and seeds by axially viewed ICP OES. Food Chem. 124, 1667–1672.
Peng Y., Ma C., Li Y., Leung K.S.Y, Jiang Z.H. and Zhao Z., 2005. Quantification of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and total carotenoids in Lycium Fruits (Fructus Lycii). Plant Food Hum Nutr60: 161-164.
Potterat O. 2010. Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): Phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity. Planta Med 76: 7–19.
Regulation, E. C. No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Official Journal of the European Union.
Regulation EU. No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers. Official Journal of the European Union.
Sager M. 2012. Chocolate and Cocoa Products as A Source of Essential Elements in Nutrition. J Nutr Food Sc 2:123.
Saldaml? ?. and Sa?lam F. 2007. Vitamins and Minerals. Ch. 6. In “Food Chemistry” 3rd ed. ?. Saldaml? (Ed), p. 365-423. Hacettepe University Publications, Ankara, Turkey.
Sheppard A.J., Pennington J.A.T., and Weihrauch J.L. 1993. Analysis and distribution of vitamin E in vegetable oil and foods. In: Vitamin E in health and disease. Packer L. Fuchs J. (Eds) Marcel –Dekker New York.
Tiwari U., and Cummins E. 2009. Nutritional importance and effect of processing on tocols in cereals. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 20: 511 -520.
The EFSA, Journal, 1462, pp. 1.77 (2010).
Vicentini A., Liberatore L. and Mastrocola D. 2016. Functional foods: trends and development of the global market. Ital J Food Sc. 28: 338.
Wang C.C., Chang S.C., Inbaraj B.S, and Chen B.H, 2010. Isolation of carotenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum L. and evaluation of antioxidant activity. Food Chem 120: 184–192.
Williams M.H. 2005. Dietary supplements and sports performance: minerals. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2(1): 43.
Zhang Q., Chen W., Zao J., and Xi W. 2016. Functional constituents and antioxidant activities of eight Chinese native goji genotypes. Food Chem 200: 230–236.
Zhao L.Q., Qiu Z. Q., Narasimhamoorthy B., and Greaves J. A. 2013. Development of a rapid, high-throughput method for quantification of zeaxanthin in Chinese wolfberry using HPLC–DAD. Ind Crop Prod 47: 51– 57.