Italian Journal of Food Science 2021-09-10T19:37:41+00:00 PROF. PAOLO FANTOZZI Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Italian</strong> <strong>Journal</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Food</strong> <strong>Science</strong> is an international journal publishing original, basic, and applied papers, reviews, short communications, surveys, and opinions on food science and technology.</p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> Formulation and optimization of astaxanthin nanoemulsions with marine phospholipids derived from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) roe 2021-05-08T12:36:39+00:00 Luyao Huang Lingyun Zhang Ruifen Li Peng Liang <p>The aim of this work was to investigate the emulsifying capacity of marine phospholipids derived from large yellow croaker roe (LYCRPLs). Initially, conditions for preparing astaxanthin (1% w/w) nanoemulsions with LYCRPLs were optimized based on single-factor experiments, including homogenization pressure, homogenization cycle, emulsifier concentration and corn oil concentration via the response surface methodology. The optimal homogenization pressure was 60 MPa, the optimal number of homogenization cycles was nine, the optimal emulsifier concentration was 4.7%, and the optimal oil concentration was 20%. Under these conditions, the stability, particle size and polydispersity index of nanoemulsions were 0.018 ± 0.0016, 247 ± 4.5 nm and 0.215±0.019, respectively. The droplets of nanoemulsions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which revealed that all the droplets were more or less spherical and nonaggregated. In addition, the storage experiments indicated that the nanoemulsions were stable at different temperatures. Therefore, LYCRPLs could be explored as carriers for the delivery of insoluble bioactive compounds in the food industry.</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Luyao Huang , Lingyun Zhang , Ruifen Li, Peng Liang Food purchasing, preservation, and eating behavior during COVID-19 pandemic 2021-06-28T09:45:25+00:00 Sibel Bölek <p>Due to the highly infectious virus known as COVID-19 impacting the lives of the populace, more than any other event in recent memory, there is a pandemic in the world. In order to determine food purchasing behavior and eating habits, food preservation techniques and source of knowledge about COVID-19, 992 consumers living in İstanbul, the most populous city in Turkey, were surveyed. The questionnaire was disseminated to participants via an online platform. Thirty questions, including the demographics of participants, changes in purchasing behavior, knowledge, and attitudes about food preservation techniques, changes in eating habits, and source of knowledge about COVID-19, were asked. The results of this study surveyed that COVID-19 has changed food purchasing and eating habits of Turkish consumers significantly (p &lt; 0.05). During the survey in late March of 2020 and late December of 2020, about 65% of respondents have tried to consume more food that boost the immune system and 58% of the respondents have been more willing to buy fresh products. Consumers have greatly adopted preserving of food stuffs by freezing during quarantine days. This survey revealed that the effective use of media tools could increase awareness and lead to behavioral changes that can reduce the spread of COVID-19, especially in con-sumers aged over 65 years.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sibel Bölek Quality of veiled olive oil: Role of turbidity components 2021-06-14T09:24:30+00:00 Carlotta Breschi Lorenzo Guerrini Ferdinando Corti Luca Calamai Paola Domizio Alessandro Parenti Bruno Zanoni <p>This study investigated the effects of water and content of solid particles, taken together as well as separately, on stability of veiled olive oil. The following oil samples were obtained through four different separation treatments: veiled, filtered, ‘solid-only’, and ‘water-only’. Changes in chemical, microbial, and sensory characteristics were evaluated during storage (240 days). A significant effect of hydrolysis was shown in veiled and ‘water only’ oils; in ‘solid-only’ oils, a slow increase of phenols was observed. A notable microbial activity, with resulting formation of volatile metabolites and sensory defects, was observed in veiled samples. Filtered oils underwent less significant changes.</p> 2021-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Carlotta Breschi, Lorenzo Guerrini, Ferdinando Corti, Luca Calamai, Paola Domizio, Alessandro Parenti, Bruno Zanoni Kaempferol protects rats with severe acute pancreatitis through regulating NF-κB and Keap1–Nrf2 signaling pathway 2021-07-19T09:00:23+00:00 Jun Cai Suyan Yao Hao Wang Wei Rong <p>Kaempferol (KF) is an important natural anti-inflammatory flavonol. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder, which in about 20% cases may develop into severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) with a high mortality rate. This research was to study the effects and mechanism of kaempferol on SAP. SAP was induced by sodium tauro-cholate. The level of cytokines was analyzed by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1–nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Keap1–Nrf2) proteins was analyzed by Western blot assay. Pathological changes in the pancreas were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Kaempferol attenuated pancreatic injury in SAP rats, including reduction in inflammatory infiltration and necrosis. The level of serum amylase and lipase was also decreased in kaempferol-treated SAP rats. Kaempferol inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators (nuclear factor-α, Interlukin-1β, and Interlukin-6), and alleviated the oxidative stress characterized by the decreased malondialde-hyde (MDA) and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Kaempferol decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which indicated that kaempferol could inhibit apoptosis of pancreatic cells in SAP rats. Kaempferol treatment could decrease the expression of p-p65 and the amount of nuclear Nrf2 (Nu-Nrf2), which demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited the NF-κB activation and enhanced the Keap1– Nrf2 pathway. Our research indicated that kaempferol could attenuate the pancreatic injury of SAP by regulating NF-κB and Keap1–Nrf2 signaling pathway. Kaempferol could serve as a natural candidate for treating SAP.</p> 2021-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jun Cai , Suyan Yao, Hao Wang, Wei Rong