Italian Journal of Food Science <p>The <strong>Italian</strong> <strong>Journal</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Food</strong> <strong>Science</strong> is an international journal publishing original, basic, and applied papers, reviews, short communications, surveys, and opinions on food science and technology.</p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> en-US <h4>Copyright Agreement with Authors</h4> <p>Before publication, after the acceptance of the manuscript, Authors have to sign a Publication Agreement with "Italian Journal of Food Science", granting and assigning to&nbsp;"Italian Journal of Food Science"&nbsp;the perpetual right to distribute the work free of charge by any means and in any parts of the world, including the communication to the public through the journal website.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h4>License for Published Contents</h4> <p><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/albertochied/88x31.png" alt=""></p> <p></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> (PROF. PAOLO FANTOZZI) (Scott Bryant, Managing Editor) Tue, 05 Apr 2022 15:07:37 +0000 OJS 60 A novel cascade approach to extract bioactive compounds from officinal herbs <p>This research aims to compare a novel cascade extraction method with a conventional solid–liquid extraction method, both assisted by ultrasounds. The cascade extraction method consists of a sequential series of extractions performed with the same hydroalcoholic solvent, which is reused from one herb to the other. In practice, a hydroalcoholic solution is firstly used to extract one botanical herb. The resulting extract is then reused for the extraction of a second herb. The process is repeated as many times as the number of herbs composing the final formulation. The main advantage of this approach is firstly the lower need of solvents compared with the individual extraction procedures, where a fresh solvent is needed on each extraction step. Furthermore, extracts of the two methods (solid liquid vs cascade extraction) were characterized with several antioxidant assays (DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The results show that the solid–liquid extraction method achieves similar yields to total phenols and similar TAC in comparison to the extracts obtained by the cascade extraction method. Also, the HPLC analysis of the extracts showed that both methods lead to similar chromatographic profiles either when analyzed by an electrochemical detector (CoulArray) or by a spectrometric diode array detector (DAD). However, our findings support the idea that the cascade extraction method obtains extracts richer of minor peaks, showing a more complex bioactive profile. Such results could be explained considering that the solvent used during the series of cascade extractions was enriched not only by antioxidants but also by plant surfactants, like saponins, which increase the solvent solubility. Overall, this research shows that the cascade extraction method can not only provide officinal herb extracts with similar phenolic yield and antioxidant capacity than conventional solid–liquid extraction but also with a more complex bioactive profile compared to traditional solid–liquid extraction and with a minor consumption of solvents.</p> Yubin Ding, Ksenia Morozova, Matteo Scampicchio, Angelo Morini, Massimiliano Ferrari Copyright (c) 2022 Yubin Ding, Ksenia Morozova, Matteo Scampicchio, Angelo Morini, Massimiliano Ferrari Fri, 01 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Marker-assisted selection of dairy cows for β-casein gene A2 variant <p>Many studies highlighted potential associations of β-casein A1 with specific human diseases and a minor digestibility of milk, due to the bioactive peptide β-casomorphin 7 (BCM-7) release during digestion. Conversely, the ancestral β-casein A2 variant seems to be a favorable trait because it is not associated with BMC-7 release. The aim of this work was to evaluate frequencies of β-casein variants in offspring of previously genotyped cows inseminated with A2 homozygous semen. The frequency of the A2/A2 animals has almost doubled from 37 to 69%. These are encouraging results with the perspective of reaching the goal of producing A2 milk.</p> Carla Sebastiani, Chiara Arcangeli, Martina Torricelli, Marcella Ciullo, Nicoletta D’avino, Giulia Cinti, Stefano Fisichella, Massimo Biagetti Copyright (c) 2022 Martina Torricelli, Carla Sebastiani, Chiara Archangeli, Martina Torricelli, Marcella Ciullo, Nicoletta D’avino, Giulia Cinti, Stefano Fisichella, Massimo Biagetti Sat, 02 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the role of nutrients in food to improve the motion state of athletes <p>This study aims to analyze the role of nutrients in food in improving athletic performance and to understand the feasibility of food supplementation in sports training. Twenty athletes were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. The athletes in the two groups had the same diet and the same training content and differed only in the supplemented food. Group A was supplemented with <em>Siraitia grosvenorii</em> water, and Group B was supplemented with pure water. After 3 months of training, the body composition, exercise status, and blood indexes of the athletes in the two groups were compared. Compared with the athletes in group A before the experiment as well as in group B after the experiment, the athletes in group A showed a significant increase in fat-free weight, improved athletic performance, increased levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC), and decreased levels of blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (P &lt; 0.05). Nutrients in food can effectively improve the body composition and exercise status of athletes and inhibit the decrease of Hb and RBC as well as the increase of BLA and BUN, which have good usability in sports training.</p> Hongkai Zhou Copyright (c) 2022 Hongkai Zhou Wed, 20 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial synergistic effects of dietary flavonoids rutin and quercetin in combination with antibiotics gentamicin and ceftriaxone against E. coli (MDR) and P. mirabilis (XDR) strains isolated from human infections: Implications for food–medicine interactions <p>Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major global concern for public health in the last two decades, which tends to compromise the existing drug regimens in treating common or severe infections. According to WHO, three million laboratory-confirmed bacterial infections have been reported from 70 countries in 2019, caused by pathogens of concern. The drug-resistant bacterial strains are characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and pan drug-resistant (PDR) based on the different patterns of resistance. It is believed that novel strategies are essentially required to counter and eliminate drug resistance in a cost-effective manner to benefit the world population. Natural compounds and certain dietary agents show potential antimicrobial properties and these have been used since ancient times to treat human infections. In this study, we have investigated the synergistic effects of dietary flavonoids rutin and quercetin with antibiotics gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) and ceftriaxone (a third-generation cephalosporin) against the drug-resistant superbugs; clinical isolates including <em>Escherichia coli</em> (MDR), <em>Proteus mirabilis</em> (XDR), and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (PDR). Conventional MIC assay and checkerboard test were used as standard protocols. Our results show that rutin and quercetin restore the antimicrobial activity of the antibiotics against MDR and XDR strains, while no such effect was observed in the case of the PDR strain. Quercetin, which is a aglycone of flavonoid rutin, demonstrates higher synergistic effects with ceftriaxone compared to rutin. Since rutin and quercetin are essentially present in human diets as constituents of fruits and vegetables, their use as nutraceuticals in adjuvant therapies in combination with antibiotics against drug resistance is a promising therapeutic strategy against superbug infections.</p> Tarig M.S. Alnour, Eltayib H. Ahmed-Abakur, Elmutuz H. Elssaig, Faisel M. Abuduhier, Mohammad Fahad Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Tarig Alnour, Eltayib Ahmed-Abakur, Elmutuz Elsaaig, Faisel Abuduhier, Mohammad Ullah Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of whey protein in myogenic differentiation <p>Whey protein has been shown to prevent exercise-induced protein degradation and muscle damage. We hypothesized that whey protein would regulate muscle cell differentiation. Adding various concentrations of whey protein to C2C12 myoblasts induced cell differentiation and MyoD (myogenic differentiation protein) expression as well as the phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B). Whey protein-induced differentiation-specific markers increased the enzymatic activities of creatine kinase and citrate synthase and the expression of muscle-specific microRNA. Whey protein elevated AKT phosphorylation on Thr308 and Ser473, which was inhibited by LY294002 (a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases inhibitor), suggesting that whey protein acts via PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase). Blocking of the PI3K/AKT pathway with specific inhibitors revealed its requirement in mediating the promotive effects of whey protein on C2C12 cell differentiation. These effects of whey protein on myoblast differentiation suggest its positive influence in preventing muscle atrophy.</p> Rui Xu, Yuejuan Xiao, Ying Zhang, Xiyan Zhao Copyright (c) 2022 Rui Xu, Yuejuan Xiao, Ying Zhang, Xiyan Zhao Tue, 26 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the potential of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) flour as a fat mimetic in biscuits with improved physicochemical and nutritional characteristics and anti-diabetic properties <p>Bottle gourd (<em>Lagenaria siceraria</em>) is a naturally rich source of several phytochemicals that play a vital role in the prevention of diseases. In the present study, the effect of bottle gourd flour (BGF) as a fat mimetic in biscuits at different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25, and 50% w/w) was explored. Rheological properties, the microstructure of dough, bioactive compounds, anti-diabetic potential, storage stability, and the nutritional, physical, and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The addition of BGF in wheat flour (WF) showed increased water absorption (58.70–72.43%) and reduced dough stability time (11.71–5.01 min). Trough (1165.11–1096.10 Torque) and set back viscosities (471.21–448.09 Torque) decreased significantly (<em>P</em> ≤ 0.05) with the increased level of BGF in WF. Furthermore, gluten content was also reduced. The baking process decreased the IC<sub>50</sub> values, although total phenol content and total flavonoid content decreased. Shelf life study of 2 months revealed no significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference in bioactive compounds, and alpha-amylase inhibition activity of fat-replaced biscuits. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of BGF-WF biscuits in human subjects also showed positive results. The percentage increase in both peroxide value (0.2–2.87 milliequivalent O<sub>2</sub>/kg of fat) and free fatty acid (0.1–0.9%) during storage was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower than control biscuits (0.9–5.53 mill-equivalent O<sub>2</sub>/kg of fat and 0.2–1.1%), which correlates to the enhanced activity of bioactive compounds in BGF-WF biscuits, which in turn relates to decreasing the rate of oxidation. The crude fiber and protein contents of BGF-WF biscuits were improved from 0.21 to 17.30% and 11.20 to 18.70%, respectively. Sensory and textural performance exhibited that the biscuits were acceptable after fat replacement of up to 15% BGF. Based on this study, BGF may be suggested as an excellent natural fat replacer to be used in nutraceuticals and functional foods.</p> Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed, Syed Arsalan Ali, Rashida Ali, Syed Asad Sayeed, Lubna Mobin Copyright (c) 2022 Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed, Syed Arsalan Ali, Rashida Ali, Syed Asad Sayeed, Lubna Mobin Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of high-moisture extrusion on soy meat analog: study on its morphological and physiochemical properties <p>There has been a growing interest in meat analog, microstructure characteristics, and anti-nutritional content obtained from soybean. High-moisture extrusion parameters are the input extruder of moisture content (&gt;40%) that get the advantages of lower energy input. Thermo-mechanical treatment has a considerable influence on structural properties of soy-based meat analog. Texturized soy proteins can substitute meat products while providing a high-protein food ingredient which can be consumed directly as meat analogs. Therefore, this review aims to the effect on soybean of micro-structural and physicochemical properties of meat analogs by high-moisture extrusion. Thus, further studies are required concerning a large-scale meat products with purify protein structure.</p> Monirul Islam, Yatao Huang, Md. Serajul Islam, Ningyu Lei, Lei Shan, Bei Fan, Litao Tong, Fengzhong Wang Copyright (c) 2022 Monirul Islam , Huang Yatao , Md. Serajul Islam, Lei Ningyu, Shan Lei, Fan Bei, Tong Litao , Fengzhong Wang Sat, 02 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000