Italian Journal of Food Science <p>The <strong>Italian</strong> <strong>Journal</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Food</strong> <strong>Science</strong> is an international journal publishing original, basic, and applied papers, reviews, short communications, surveys, and opinions on food science and technology with specific reference to the <strong>Mediterranean</strong> <strong>Region</strong>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p align="center"><a href="/ojs/index.php/ijfs/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/albertochied/IJFS-testataBN.jpg" alt=""></a></p> Codon Publications en-US Italian Journal of Food Science 1120-1770 <h4>Copyright Agreement with Authors</h4> <p>Before publication, after the acceptance of the manuscript, Authors have to sign a Publication Agreement with "Italian Journal of Food Science", granting and assigning to&nbsp;"Italian Journal of Food Science"&nbsp;the perpetual right to distribute the work free of charge by any means and in any parts of the world, including the communication to the public through the journal website.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h4>License for Published Contents</h4> <p><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/albertochied/88x31.png" alt=""></p> <p></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CAPACITIES OF PEPPER TISSUES <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of five pepper varieties tissues. Green Bell peppers had the highest total antioxidant contents; while Red Chilli variety had the lowest antioxidant activities (ABTS was 3.89 ?mol TE/g fw, DPPH was 2.82 ?mol TE/g fw and FRAP was 16.95 ?mol TE/g fw). The methanolic extracts of different peppers showed strong but different anti-inflammatory activity values (8.22 ?g/ml - 9.52 ?g). Yellow Bell, Red and Green Chilli had the highest anti-inflammatory activity followed by Green and Red Bell extracts, respectively. The results suggest that these varieties of pepper could contribute as sources of important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory related to the oxidative stress and inflammation prevention.</p> G.H. QIAO D. WENXIN X. ZHIGANG R. SAMI E. KHOJAH S. AMANULLAH Copyright (c) 2019 Rokayya Eldib 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1700 ISOLATION OF BABY LIMA BEAN (PHASEOLUS LUNATUS) PROTEINS FRACTIONS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY <div>The aim of this work was to obtain fractions of baby Lima Bean Protein Concentrate (LBPC) from ( Phaseolus lunatus ) and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. LBPC was prepared by alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.5. LBPC was subject to gastrointestinal digestion simulation. LBPC was fractionated using a DEAE Affi-Gel Blue Gel column. LBPC presented a protein content of 77.20% with a protein solubility capacity ranging between 37.34% to 99.98%. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the FRAP, DPPH and ORAC methods. LBPC cationic fractions presented a high antioxidant activity when using the ORAC method with values ranging between 0.47 to 3.37 ?mol TE/?mol of sample.</div> M. ZAMBRANO G. VÁSQUEZ D. MORALES R. VILCACUNDO W. CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2019 Wilman Carrillo, Maritza Zambrano, Grace Vásquez, Dayana Morales, Ruben Vilcacundo 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1727 CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMOGENISED RICOTTA CHEESE PRODUCED FROM BUFFALO WHEY <div>To extend the shelf life of buffalo Ricotta cheese, a process was assessed that included a second heat treatment followed by homogenisation and hot packaging. The microbiological and chemical characteristics as well as the oxidation degree of the product were determined over storage for 21 days using total antioxidant activity, redox potential, malondialdehyde content, and protein-bound carbonyl content. Homogenised buffalo Ricotta cheese has a longer shelf life than traditional Ricotta cheese, although the process could be optimised to reduce the total bacterial load during storage. No significant oxidative damage occurred during storage. This innovative process could promote the market expansion of Ricotta cheese.</div> C. TRIPALDI S. RINALDI G. PALOCCI S. DI GIOVANNI M.C. CAMPAGNA C. DI RUSSO T. ZOTTOLA Copyright (c) 2019 Simona Rinaldi, Carmela Tripaldi, Giuliano Palocci, Sabrina Di Giovanni, Tiziana Zottola, Maria Concetta Campagna, Cristina Di Russo 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1654 GRAPEVINE CANES WASTE FROM VENETO REGION AS A NEW SOURCE OF STILBENOIDS CONTENT <p>The effect of mixed starter cultures on biogenic amine production was examined during the ripening process of dry camel meat sausage. Changes in pH,&nbsp;moisture content, proteolysis, microbial counts and lipid oxidation were also studied. The combination of three amine-negative bacteria,&nbsp;resulted in a&nbsp;drastic reduction of biogenic amine production. The highest total free amino acid concentration was observed in batches manufactured with mixed starter cultures. The bactericidal properties of L. sakei improved the hygienic quality&nbsp;of sausages by decreasing the number of&nbsp;Enterobacteriaceae. Inoculation of sausages with a mixture of strains, significantly delayed lipid oxidation and enhanced sensory characteristics.</p> G.S. DE BONA F. BONORA S. VINCENZI Copyright (c) 2019 Simone Vincenzi 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1645 EFFECT OF MIXED STARTER CULTURES ON BIOGENIC AMINE FORMATION DURING THE RIPENING OF TUNISIAN DRY FERMENTED CAMEL MEAT SAUSAGE <p>The effect of mixed starter cultures on biogenic amine production was examined during the ripening process of dry camel meat sausage. Changes in pH, moisture content, proteolysis, microbial counts and lipid oxidation were also studied. The combination of three amine-negative bacteria, resulted in a drastic reduction of biogenic amine production. The highest total free amino acid concentration was observed in batches manufactured with mixed starter cultures. The bactericidal properties of <em>L. sakei</em> improved the hygienic quality of sausages by decreasing the number of Enterobacteriaceae. Inoculation of sausages with a mixture of strains, significantly delayed lipid oxidation and enhanced sensory characteristics.</p> S. EL ADAB W. BEN WADDA A. TEKIKI O. BEN MOUSSA M. BOULARES S. SADOK M. HASSOUNA Copyright (c) 2020 Sabrine EL ADAB 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1733 CYCLIC PROANTHOCYANIDINS IN PINOT NOIR WINE <p>The identification of cyclic (or crown) B-type proanthocyanidins in wine was recently reported; this identification has unlocked new possibilities for their application to wine quality evaluation. Here, cyclic and non-cyclic B-type proanthocyanidins, along with other phenolic compounds as well as sensory and oenological parameters, were characterized in eleven Pinot Noir wines. The wines were produced from grapes harvested in different vineyards and under different winemaking conditions. With Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the cyclic proanthocyanidins or their relative proportions, it was possible to differentiate the wines according to specific winemaking conditions. Moreover, cyclic proanthocyanidins were related to the overall sensory quality of Pinot Noir wines.</p> V. MERKYTĖ A. DUPAS DE MATOS E. LONGO P.F. TCHOUAKEU BETNGA E. BOSELLI Copyright (c) 2020 Edoardo Longo 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1689 DIPPING SOLUTIONS OF NISIN AND BUFFERED SODIUM CITRATE SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DIACETATE FAIL TO PREVENT GROWTH OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON VACUUM PACKAGED BEEF FRANKFURTERS STORED AT 4 AND 10°C UNDER MODEL CONDITIONS <div>This study evaluated commercially available dip solutions of nisin alone, buffered sodium citrate combined with sodium diacetate (BSCSD), and combined solution of the three antimicrobials for potential to control growth of surface-inoculated Listeria monocytogenes during vacuum packaged refrigerated storage of model beef frankfurters. None of the treatments prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during Frankfurter storage. The combined treatments slowed growth of L. monocytogenes better than individual treatments. Failure to completely eliminate L. monocytogenes on frankfurters or inhibit outgrowth during storage might be attributed to high initial L. monocytogenes inoculum levels, insufficient quantities of antimicrobials to interact with all the target cells, low nisin activity at high pH, or presence of resistant subpopulations, such as nisin-resistant strains. The model conditions used in the experimental setup, such as elimination of natural microbiota from frankfurters and nutrient-rich diluent used for Listeria introduction on the surface, could also contributed to enhanced survival and growth of the pathogen.</div> S. KUMARI O. TOKARSKYY D.L. MARSHALL Copyright (c) 2020 Oleksandr Tokarskyy 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1671 VALORIZATION OF RED GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CV. SANGIOVESE) POMACE AS FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENT <p>The winemaking process generates large amounts of by-products that are still a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used as functional food ingredients. This study is aimed to develop a cow milk kefir fortified with&nbsp; Sangiovese red grape pomace.&nbsp; The phenolic extracts of skins and seeds, which were obtained after infusion and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), were rich in (+)-catechin (105.0±147.0 mg/L) and (-) epicatechin (76.0±364.0&nbsp; mg/L) based on HPLC-DAD&nbsp; analysis. The UAE-derived skin extracts were selected for their best antioxidant effectiveness and incorporated into kefir,&nbsp; whose functional properties have been investigated through spectrophotometric assays. The addition of UAE-derived skin extract to kefir was significantly effective in enhancing the total phenolic content (43.2 %) thus increasing the total antioxidant capacity (+47.7 %) and lowering IC50ABTS (-36.0%) and DPPH (-31.45%). An increased inhibitory activity towards ?-amylase,&nbsp; ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase was also achieved by decreasing the corresponding IC50 values (69.39 and 73.01 "g/mL, respectively).</p> G. CARULLO U.G. SPIZZIRRI M.R. LOIZZO M. LEPORINI V. SICARI F. AIELLO D. RESTUCCIA Copyright (c) 2020 Gabriele Carullo, Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri, Monica Rosa Loizzo, Mariarosaria Leporini, Vincenzo Sicari, Francesca Aiello, Donatella Restuccia 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1758 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON THE TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND FREE PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WHEAT BRAN BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY <p>There are some antioxidants in wheat bran provides health benefits. But the influence of extrusion pre-treatment on the antioxidant capacity and free phenolic compounds of wheat bran is not clear. Herein, it was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Within the experimental range, free phenolic compounds (FPC) increased gradually with feed moisture and extrusion temperature. And the total antioxidant capacity of extruded wheat bran increased gradually with rising feed moisture and screw speed. The optimized extrusion parameters were extrusion temperature at 86°C, feed moisture at 22 % and screw speed at 160 rpm. The total FPA reached 3136.9 ?g GAE g<sup>?1</sup> and the ferulic acid content was 93.4 ?g.g<sup>?1</sup> . Extrusion treatment for wheat bran significantly improved the antioxidant properties and increased the concentration of gallic acid and ferulic acid. The effect of extrusion temperature on total free phenol content is extremely significant.</p> Z. JIN M. WANG F. WU H.Y. CAI W.P. JIN W. SUN X. CHEN F. LI Z. WANG W.Y. SHEN Copyright (c) 2020 Zhou Jin; Min Wang, Fan Wu; Hongyan Cai; Weiping Jin, Wei Sun, Xuan Chen, Fang Li, Zhan Wang, Wangyang Shen 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1626 MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF COMBINED OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND ACETIC ACID ON FRESH LETTUCE <p>This study determined the microbiological quality of lettuce purchased at Durban markets, and evaluated the antimicrobial effects of oregano essential oil (OEO), acetic acid (AA) and combination (OEO+AA)] on the survival of Escherichia coli and L. monocytogenes on lettuce for 6 days. Aerobic and anaerobic spore formers, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and L. monocytogenes were microscopically and phenotypically identified from the lettuce. Decontamination was higher and significantly different (p&gt;0.05) at 5ºC with combined 0.3%&nbsp; AA+0.1%&nbsp; EOE, and complete inhibition of pathogens was observed on day 2. This formulation can increase antimicrobial efficacy and balance sensory attributes of treated lettuce.</p> OA. IJABADENIYI A. MBEDLA TA. AJAYEOBA Copyright (c) 2020 Titilayo Adenike Ajayeoba, Asanda Mbedla, Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi 2020-03-11 2020-03-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1566 PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) ISOLATES FROM RETAIL MEAT IN SOUTH ITALY <p>This study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) from 500 retail meat products in South Italy from June 2016 to June 2018, including 150 raw bovine, 120 pork, 150 chicken and 80 horse meat.</p> <p>After bacteriological analysis, 12 (2.4%) samples were positive for MRSA. Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, <em>spa</em> typing and MLST. MRSA were also investigated by PCR for the presence of enterotoxins, <em>lukF-PV</em>-<em>lukS-PV </em>and <em>icaA</em>-<em>icaD</em> genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant. One strain harboured PVL-encoding genes (8.3%). Seven MRSA isolates of 12 (58.3%) carried <em>seh</em> enterotoxin encoding gene. The <em>icaA</em> and <em>icaD</em> genes were both present in 10 isolates (83.3%).</p> <div>MRSA isolates in retail meat may serve as a potential source of exposure to MRS A for humans and monitoring of food-producing animals and hygiene standards should be strictly and carefully considered throughout the entire meat chain to ensure food safety.</div> M.G. BASANISI G. LA BELLA G. NOBILI S. TOLA M.A. CAFIERO G. LA SALANDRA Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Grazia Basanisi, Gianfranco La Bella, Gaia Nobili, Sebastiana Tola, Maria Assunta Cafiero, Giovanna La Salandra 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1629 EFFECTS OF PECTIN-BASED EDIBLE COATINGS CONTAINING A BACTERIOCIN OF BACILLUS METHYLOTROPHICUS BM47 ON THE QUALITY AND STORAGE LIFE OF FRESH BLACKBERRIES <p>The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of edible coatings based on celery pectin singly and in combination with a bacteriocin of Bacillus methylotrophicus BM47 on the quality and storage life of fresh blackberries under refrigeration conditions. In this study three experimental groups were prepared: uncoated blackberries as a control, blackberries with 1% pectin coatings and blackberries with 1% pectin coatings+bacteriocin of B. methylotrophicus BM47. During the storage at 4°C and 75% RH for 16 days, the weight loss, decay percentage, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), pH, organic acids, sugars, total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were analyzed.</p> <p>The results showed that the application of pectin and pectin+bacteriocin coatings led to a reduction in weight loss with 6.3% and 6.7% compared to the control fruit on the 16-th day of storage. A decrease in decay percentage was also noticed, which was most pronounced in the pectin+bacteriocin coated fruit compared to the pectin coatings and control. The pectin and pectin+bacteriocin coatings reduced TSS levels with 0.4%&nbsp; and 0.6%, respectively compared to the control on the 16-th day of the storage, but did not affect TA and pH values. The pectin and&nbsp; pectin+bacteriocin&nbsp; coatings had no effect on decreasing total phenolic and anthocyanin contents or the concentration of sugars&nbsp; (glucose and fructose) in both treatments and the control fruit. The pectin and pectin+bacteriocin edible coatings exhibited a protective effect on the ascorbic acid content, maintaining concentrations of 57.5 mg/100 g of fw and 58.8 mg/100 g of fw (day 16), which were close to the initial values. The pectin and&nbsp; pectin+bacteriocin&nbsp; treatments had also a&nbsp; positive impact on antioxidant activity in the coated blackberries.&nbsp; Both edible coatings effectively inhibited its decrease with the prolongation of the storage time and kept antioxidant levels of&nbsp; 231.8&nbsp; TE/100&nbsp; g&nbsp; of fw and&nbsp; 232.4&nbsp; TE/100&nbsp; g&nbsp; of fw&nbsp; (day&nbsp; 16)&nbsp; that were close to the initial values.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Y. TUMBARSKI N. PETKOVA M. TODOROVA I. IVANOV I. DESEVA D. MIHAYLOVA S.A. IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2020 Yulian Dimitrov Tumbarski 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1663 IMPACT OF HYDROCOLLOIDS ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF GLUTEN-FREE INSTANT NOODLES FROM RICE FLOUR AND MUNG BEAN STARCH <p>The physico-chemical properties of gluten-free (GF) instant noodles prepared from rice flour and mung bean starch containing hydrocolloids that were carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), guar gum (GG) and xanthan gum (XG) had been investigated. The results were found that the sample that contained CMC had the least fat uptake and cooking time. Different hydrocolloids had no effect on the gelatinization parameters of the noodle dough. The addition of GG improved the textural properties and cooking yields of the GF instant noodles. The samples that were enriched with HPMC showed a significantly lower cooking loss than the others did. An undesirable characteristic was found in the GF noodles that incorporated XG. Microstructural image of sample containing XG revealed a non-continuous matrix. The addition of either GG or HPMC improved the sensory properties of the GF instant noodles.</p> S. SUTHEEVES P. CHAI-UEA D. THIRATHUMTHAVORN Copyright (c) 2020 Doungjai Thirathumthavorn Thirathumthavorn 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1551 COLD AND HOT SMOKED NILE TILAPIA FILLETS: QUALITY AND YIELD OF PIGMENTED AND UNPIGMENTED FILLETS <p>Aiming evaluate the effects of smoking techniques on the quality of tilapia fillets, a 2x2 factorial scheme experiment was conducted comprising two smoking techniques (hot and cold) and two pigmentation (with and without). Cold smoked fillets and fillets with pigmentation demonstrated a greater yield. Hot smoked fillets were tenderer and presented lower moisture and greater ash and protein contents. The pigmentation did not influence the smoked fillet composition, but ash content was greater in fillets without pigmentation. The sensory acceptance of hot smoked fillets was better. The pigmentation influenced the color and appearance; however, fillets without pigmentation gave better flavor.</p> M.L.R SOUZA E.M.M. VIEGAS S.N. KRONKA L.A. AMARAL G. PARISI M.F. CORADINI E.S.R. GOES Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza, Elisabete Maria Macedo Viegas, Sergio do Nascimento Kronka, Luiz Augusto do Amaral, Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1567 FOOD SERVICE OPERATORS BEHAVIOR AND KNOWLEDGE ON GLUTEN-FREE MEALS AND REQUIREMENTS OF PUBLIC CANTEENS <p>This study provides a summary of Celiac Disease (CD) epidemiology in Italy, canteens distribution and training courses for food service operators (FSOs) analyzing 2007-2017 data. Furthermore, behavior and knowledge of FSOs and organizational requirements for gluten-free (GF) meals in school and hospital canteens in central Italy were investigated. In parallel to an increased CD occurrence at national level, GF foods demand is significantly growing. Our survey in 20 inspected canteens revealed important knowledge and awareness gaps among FSOs, as well as lack of procedures and structural requirements for safely providing GF meals, underlining the need to improve education on topic.</p> M. TAMBURRO M.L. SAMMARCO L. DI ELEONORA G. RIPABELLI Copyright (c) 2020 Manuela Tamburro, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Lino Di Eleonora, GIANCARLO RIPABELLI 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1657 CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN FIVE BLUEBERRY VARIETIES USING PURGE AND TRAP COUPLED TO GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY <p>The volatile composition of five blueberry varieties from two different regions was analysed by dynamic headspace (purge and trap, P&amp;T)&nbsp; coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimized conditions, the P&amp;T method was successfully validated, showing good linearity, high accuracy, good reproducibility and a low limit of detection. A total of 80 volatiles were identified, including 19 esters, 30 alcohols, 18 aldehydes, 7 ketones and 6 other compounds. Furthermore, a spider web diagram was constructed to compare the flavour profiles of these blueberries, and the obtained results demonstrated that blueberries from different locations have different flavour profiles.</p> Z. XINYU W. YI H. XUE Y. ZIXI Y. WEIQIONG L. ZHAOLIN Copyright (c) 2020 xinyu Zhang, Yi Wu, Xue Han, Zixi Yan, Weiqiong Yuan, Zhaolin Lv 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 32 2 10.14674/IJFS-1675