Italian Journal of Food Science https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs <p>The <strong>Italian</strong> <strong>Journal</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Food</strong> <strong>Science</strong> is an international journal publishing original, basic, and applied papers, reviews, short communications, surveys, and opinions on food science and technology.</p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><a href="https://itjfs.com/ojs/index.php/ijfs/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="https://itjfs.com/ojs/public/site/images/albertochied/IJFS-testataBN.jpg" alt="" /></a></p> Codon Publications en-US Italian Journal of Food Science 1120-1770 <h4>Copyright Agreement with Authors</h4> <p>Before publication, after the acceptance of the manuscript, Authors have to sign a Publication Agreement with "Italian Journal of Food Science", granting and assigning to&nbsp;"Italian Journal of Food Science"&nbsp;the perpetual right to distribute the work free of charge by any means and in any parts of the world, including the communication to the public through the journal website.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h4>License for Published Contents</h4> <p><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/albertochied/88x31.png" alt=""></p> <p>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF TWO HAZELNUTS VARIETIES AND ITS KERNEL RELATION TO HARVEST AND THRESHING https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1666 <p>In this research, several engineering properties of two hazelnut cultivars (Palaz and Çakildak varieties) were determined and compared in terms of linear dimensions, mass, sphericity, surface area, projected area, true and bulk densities, porosity, repose angle, shell ratio, terminal velocity, rupture force, energy, deformation and drag coefficient. These properties are necessary for the design of much equipment for harvesting, processing, and transportation, sorting, separating and packing. Also, rupture force and deformations were determined which are the most discriminant parameters that can be used to describe the behavior under compression. In both cultivars, these values were also determined within the kernels.</p> K.Ç. SELVI E. YESILOĞLU H. SAUK Copyright (c) 2020 Kemal Ça?atay Selvi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1666 ASSESSMENT OF DURABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGES IN KEFIR MADE FROM COW'S AND GOAT'S MILK https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1803 <div>Present study was aimed to determine the changes and the best consumption time of kefir samples made from cow and goat milk using starter culture during the storage at the refrigerator (+4°C for 35 days). It was found that goat kefir (GK) samples had higher pH and lipolysis values during storage while cow kefir (CK) samples had higher values of viscosity. The counts of lactococci, lactobacilli, leuconostoc, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, acetic acid bacteria and yeast decreased during the storage. Amounts of lactic, acetic, citric, pyruvic and oxalic acids were higher in GK samples. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl and acetoin contents were higher in CK samples. The highest sensory scores were obtained for CK samples on 14<sup>th</sup> day and for GC sample on 21<sup>th</sup> day of the storage.</div> E. SARICA H. COŞKUN Copyright (c) 2020 ERCAN SARICA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-25 2020-08-25 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1803 QUALITY AND MYCOBIOTA COMPOSITION OF STORED EGGS https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1702 <p>The aim of this study was to monitor the quality and mycobiota composition of table eggs during storage period. The most significant changes in the egg weight and water activity were observed on Day 7. To identify the mycobiota present on the eggshell by PCR method, a newly designed procedure for the extraction of fungal DNA based on a&nbsp;combination of commercial isolation kit, proteinase K and ultrasound was implemented. Identified mold genera included <em>Penicillium</em> spp., <em>Cladosporium</em> spp., <em>Fusarium</em> spp. and <em>Alternaria alternata</em> group. Their ratio varied considerably during storage with the dominance of <em>Penicillium </em>spp. on Day 14.</p> I. REGECOVÁ M. PIPOVÁ P. JEVINOVÁ S. DEMJANOVÁ B. SEMJON Copyright (c) 2020 Monika Pipová, Ivana Regecová, Pavlina Jevinová, So?a Demjanová, Boris Semjon http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1702 EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF TUNISIAN ALMOND CULTIVARS https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1794 <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate for the first time protein, oil content, fatty acid profile and sugar composition for the main commercial almond cultivars in Tunisia in comparison to foreigners. Thus, fruits from twelve locals and five introduced cultivars from France, Italy and Spain were analyzed over two years. In fact, total oil content varied from 52.28% (‘Blanco’) to 60.95% (‘Lsen Asfour’) in the first year and from 47.75% (‘Zahaaf’) to 56.15% (‘Mahsouna’) in the second. However, the highest oleic acid content was noted in ‘Francoli’ (76.2%) for both years. It was followed by ‘Sahnoun’ (75.11%) firstly and ‘Abiodh’ (73.02%) secondly. Likewise, the highest linoleic acid content was observed in ‘Porto’ for both studied years (22.87% and 23.67%). The highest palmitic acid content was detected in ‘Porto’ (7.02%) and in ‘Tuono’ for the consecutive years. Sugars profile was quite distinctive among cultivars. The cultivar ‘Porto’ presented the highest total sugars (5.8 g/100g DW) and sucrose contents (4.96 g/100g DW). Nevertheless, protein content doesn’t show extreme values. For both years, the local cultivar ‘Zahaaf’ presented the highest protein content (27 g/100g DW) while introduced French cultivar ‘Fournat de Breznaud’ presented the lowest protein content (17 g/100g DW). All the analyzed components were different significantly according to cultivar and year effects. Results evidenced that the local Tunisian cultivars are highly rich in oil and fatty acids particularly oleic and linoleic acids, confirm the almond kernel as a high nutritional dietetic source and underline the high adaptability of some introduction.</p> H. GOUTA E. KSIA I. LAARIBI F. MOLINO G. ESTOPAÑAN T. JUAN O. KODAD P. MARTÍNEZ-GÓMEZ P.J. MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA Copyright (c) 2020 Hassouna Gouta http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1794 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON RIPENING OF TURKISH WHITE CHEESE FROM DIFFERENT MILK SPECIES https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1712 <div>High pressure treatment has diverse effect on cheeses depending on their characteristics. In this study, pressure application on Turkish White cheese (300 and 450 MPa/5 min) and the changes during ripening were investigated. The 450 MPa pressure process showed an enhanced effect on proteolytic and lipolytic activity of cheeses. Besides, 450 MPa pressure treatment was very effective on the microbiological profile, but the other treatment condition exhibited a more moderate antimicrobial effect. Although, the total mold-yeast were detected after high-pressure treatment, their existence to a considerable degree was seen at the end of storage.</div> H. YAMAN E. SARICA H. COŞKUN Copyright (c) 2020 Hülya Yaman, Ercan Sar?ca, Hayri Co?kun http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1712 BROMATOLOGICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RHEOLOGY OF EGGPLANT PULP https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1706 <div>This study aimed to determine the bromatological composition and the behavior of rheological parameters on the pulp eggplant (Solanum melongena). Bromatological analyzes were performed according to the reference methods, in which a percentage of moisture 90.98%, total carbohydrates 6.86%, crude fiber 1.94%, crude protein 1.19%, Fat 0.31% and 0.49% of ash has been obtained. Viscous flow curves were calculated in the steady state over a temperature range of 10-80ºC, and the rheological properties of the pulp were evaluated as a function of temperature. The pulp showed pseudoplastic behavior (shear thinning type) at all temperatures, and the relationship between viscosity and the Carreau-Yasuda model (R2&gt;0.99). The Arrhenius equation was fitted to the data for the apparent viscosity of the pulp with respect to temperature, with activation energy E<sub>a</sub>=1081.61 J/mol. The results provide information on bromatological composition and the rheological behavior of eggplant pulp and may have applications in the design of processes using this raw material.</div> R. MARSIGLIA L. MIELES-GÓMEZ S. LASTRA S.E. QUINTANA L.A. GARCÍA-ZAPATEIRO Copyright (c) 2020 RONALD MIGUEL MARSIGLIA FUENTES, Luis Alberto García Zapateiro, Luis Daniel Mieles Gomez, Santander Lastra Ripoll http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1706 QUALITY OF ISTRIAN AND SLAVONIAN DRY-FERMENTED SAUSAGES https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1805 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate nutritive and sensorial quality of Istrian and Slavonian pork-meat dry-fermented sausages. Sensorial analysis resulted in statistically significant differences (p&lt;0.05) between these products in 11 sensorial parameters analysed. Significantly higher protein content was determined in Istrian in comparison with Slavonian dry-fermented sausage, although the latter content significantly varied across the producing households. No significant differences in particular fatty acid esters and saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Although some of the nutritional quality indices failed to meet health recommendations, the obtained values are consistent with data published for pork meat products.</p> J. PLEADIN T. LEŠIĆ G. KREŠIĆ T. BOGDANOVIĆ M. MALENICA I. KOS B.S. PULIĆ S. PETRIČEVIĆ G. KUŠEC N. VAHČIĆ Copyright (c) 2020 Jelka Pleadin, Tina Leši?, Greta Kreši?, Tanja Bogdanovi?, Mladenka Malenica, Ivica Kos, Blanka Sin?i? Pulji?, Sandra Petri?evi?, Goran Kušec, Nada Vah?i? http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1805 DEVELOPMENT OF A DYNAMIC MODEL TO PREDICT THE FATE OF PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DICED CUCUMBER UNDER CHANGING TEMPERATURES https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1655 <p><em>Escherichia coli</em> has been detected in a variety of foods, particularly in salad vegetables, such as diced cucumbers. However, it is difficult to control this pathogen in salad vegetables, because they are consumed without additional preparation or cooking. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop dynamic models to describe the kinetic behavior of <em>E. coli </em>in diced cucumber. The diced cucumber was inoculated with <em>E. coli</em>, and stored at 10°C, 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C; cells counts were then performed using Petrifilm™ plates. The Baranyi model was used to calculate lag phase duration (<em>LPD</em>; h) and maximum specific growth rate (<em>µ</em><sub>max</sub>.; log CFU/g/h). These parameters were then fitted to a polynomial model, as a function of temperature, and a subsequent dynamic model was developed in accordance with these primary and secondary models. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing predicted data with observed data to calculate the root mean square error (<em>RMSE</em>). As temperature increased, <em>LPD </em>decreased, but <em>µ</em><sub>max</sub> increased. The secondary model effectively described the temperature effect on <em>LPD</em> and <em>µ</em><sub>max</sub>, where <em>R<sup>2</sup> </em>equaled 0.972-0.983<em>. </em>In the validation stage, an <em>RMSE </em>value of 0.272 suggested that model performance was appropriate to predict cell counts in diced cucumber, and these predictions remained appropriate under changing temperatures. These results indicate that <em>E. coli </em>can grow rapidly in diced cucumber at high storage temperatures, and present a useful dynamic model for describing the kinetic behavior of <em>E. coli</em> in this vegetable.</p> J. HA E. PARK J.S. KIM J. LEE S. LEE S. KIM Y. CHOI H. OH Y. KIM Y. LEE Y. SEO J. KANG Y. YOON Copyright (c) 2020 Yohan Yoon http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1655 KRACHAI DAM (KAEMPFERIA PARVIFLORA) DRINKS: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE, PURCHASE INTENT, AND EMOTIONAL AND WELLNESS RESPONSES https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1756 <div>The rhizomes of Krachai Dam (Kaempferia parviflora) and their main effective</div> <div>methoxyflavones (5,7-dimethoxyflavone and 5,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone) have been reported to have beneficial medicinal effects. Additionally, emotions and wellness can play leading roles in product development in addition to liking. This study aims to formulate the Krachai D am drink and to assess the effects of health benefit information on consumer acceptance, purchase intent, and emotional and wellness responses. The optimal formulation of Krachai Dam drink was 165 mg/100 ml dried Krachai Dam, 16% sugar and 0.32% citric acid, which had a high total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and overall liking score. After consumers received the health benefit information of the product, increases were recorded in consumer acceptance, purchase intent, the highest price that consumers were willing to pay, and positive emotional and wellness responses.</div> P. HANMONTREE A. SAE-EAW Copyright (c) 2020 Pannapa Hanmontree http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1756 FATTY ACID PROFILE AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ROE DEER MEAT AFTER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1599 <div>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cold storage (2°C, 7 and 21 days) under vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions on the fatty acid (FA) profile and sensory properties of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from male roe deer. The total content of polyunsaturated FA tended to decrease during storage. Storage conditions had a limited (P&gt;0.05) influence on the FA composition. Vacuum- and MA-packaged meat was characterized by high sensory quality during storage. However, samples packaged in MA composed of 40% CO<sub>2</sub>+60% N<sub>2 </sub>had a tendency to higher average scores for taste desirability after the third week of storage.</div> T. DASZKIEWICZ J. KONDRATOWICZ Copyright (c) 2020 Tomasz Daszkiewicz http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1599 VARIATIONS IN THE SUGARS AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS RELATED TO ROOT COLOUR IN TUNISIAN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA SUBSP. SATIVUS) LANDRACES https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1797 <div class="page" data-page-number="1" data-loaded="true"> <div class="textLayer"> <div>Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is the most widely consumed root vegetable since it is an important source of nutritional compounds, mainly antioxidants and sugars. In Tunisia, despite the genetic diversity observed in carrot germplasm, including landraces and wild relatives, no research has been conducted on the biochemical composition of carrot. Thus, this study aims to analyse carotenoids, soluble sugars, total phenols, total flavonoids and colour properties of 14 carrot landraces, in order to determine the diversity among them and evaluate the relationships among their biochemical contents. The main carotenoids identified were a-carotene, B-carotene and lutein. Orange carrots were richer in B-carotene and a-carotene than yellow carrots. The major sugars were sucrose, glucose, fructose and galactose. Significant differences were observed among the Tunisian carrot landraces with respect to their biochemical composition and colour characteristics. Total carotenoids and total sugars ranged from 155.74 to 511.44 ug/g of dw and from 368.77 to 546.79 mg/g of dw, respectively. Total phenols and total flavonoids varied from 24.13 to 41.39 mg GAE/100 g of dw and from 16.51 to 24.85 ug CE/100 g of dw, respectively. Significant, positive and negative correlations were found among the measured parameters. A principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) were performed to classify the Tunisian carrot landraces on the basis of colour properties and biochemical compounds. The PCA divided the landraces into four main groups and AHC classified them into two major clusters. The Tunisian carrot landraces were found to be rich in bioactive compounds; they could be good candidates for future breeding programs.</div> </div> </div> J. BENAMOR N. MEZGHANI M.J. PERIAGO I. NAVARRO-GONZÁLEZ L.I. ELVIRA-TORALES N. MEZGHANI Y. OUAKRIM N. TARCHOUN Copyright (c) 2020 Jihen Ben Amor, Najla Mezghani, María Jesús Periago, Inmaculada Navarro-González, Laura Elvira-Torales, Neila Mezghani, Youssef Ouakrim, Neji Tarchoun http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-05-22 2020-05-22 32 3 OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION PROCESS OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL CHARACTERIZED WITH HIGH PUFA CONTENT VIA DOUBLE RESPONSE SURFACE IN COMBINATION WITH MATLAB METHODOLOGY https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1678 <div>Box-behnken-double response surface optimization combined with Matlab analysis was used to optimize the extraction of Inner Mongolia pumpkin seed crude oil based on the relative content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)</div> <div>(Y1) and crude oil yield (Y2). The influence of three single factors (solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) of pumpkin seed was investigated. By the optimization of dual response surface analysis, the optimal extraction process parameter was as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:26.8 g/mL, extraction temperature of 30°C, extraction time of 2.5 h. On this condition, the relative content of PUFA was 43.54±0.14%, and the crude oil yield was 14.84±0.10 %, which showed no significant difference from theoretical value (p&gt;0.05). In addition, by Matlab analysis, when the extraction time was taken as the lower level (C=2.5 h), Y1 was able to obtain larger theoretical values ( 45.8485%), however, when the temperature was taken as the higher level (C=3.5 h), Y2 can obtain larger theoretical values (17.0563%). When the extraction time was fixed as 2.5 h, and the solid-liquid ratio was within the range of 1:24-1:27 g/mL, extraction temperature was within the range of 30-32.5°C, Y1 and Y2 both can get the theoretical maximum value. The results of dual response surface optimization and matlab optimization are consistent. The combination on of the two methods can not only accurately obtain the best extraction scheme, but also more intuitively find out the reasonable process parameter interval of Pumpkin seed oil.</div> <p><em> </em></p> S. XUE X. XIAO Y. HUANG Copyright (c) 2020 S. XUE, X. XIAO, Y. HUANG http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1678 EVALUATION OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS APPLIED TO FISH BY-PRODUCT OIL THROUGH CHEMICAL PARAMETERS https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1851 <p>Large amounts of fish waste are produced by the fish processing plants. This waste could be used to obtain high value-added products, such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the enzymatic hydrolysis of low commercial value crude fish oil through chemical parameters. Crude fish oil was obtained from mixed fishmeal production and was chemically refined. <em>Candida rugosa</em> lipase AY "Amano" 30 was utilized to catalyze the enzymatic hydrolysis. The acidity index, iodine value, saponification index and peroxide value were used to characterize the samples studied. The chemical refining process yielded 62.75% and improved the quality of crude fish oil by reducing the acidity index around 91%. The best results of hydrolysis degree (23.45%) and iodine value (120 g I<sub>2</sub> g<sup>-1</sup>) were obtained at 45ºC after 6 h of lipase action. The iodine value of crude oil was not affected by processing, indicating that the nutritional quality was preserved in the refined oil. Despite the hydrolysis process showed good results, it was not sufficient to concentrate the unsaturated fatty acids of refined oil, as indicated by the iodine value.</p> C. MORONI SILVA F. GERALD LIMA K. FURTADO DA COSTA V. AMARAL RIBEIRO R.S. RIBEIRO LEITE M.E. PETENUCI J.M.L. NEVES GELINSKI G. GRACIANO FONSECA C. PRENTICE Copyright (c) 2020 Gustavo Graciano Fonseca http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1851 THE EFFECT OF PEELING ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF BLACK RADISH ROOT https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1741 <p>In this study, freeze-dried peeled and unpeeled root as well as the juice from peeled and unpeeled root of black radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. var <em>niger</em>) cultivated in Mongolia were characterized for their DPPH<sup>·</sup> and ABTS<sup>·</sup><sup>+</sup> scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenolics, and flavonoids in order to evaluate the effect of the peel. The juice from the peeled root showed strong antioxidant potential may due to its high phenolic content. However, the ability of the dried unpeeled root to quench free radicals and reduce Fe<sup>3+</sup> was higher than that of the dried peeled root.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> E. ENKHTUYA M. TSEND Copyright (c) 2020 E. ENKHTUYA, M. TSEND http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1741 OCCURRENCE OF DEOXYNIVALENOL IN BEERS COMMERCIALISED IN ITALY https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1826 <div>Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected mycotoxin in beer. This study represents a comprehensive assessment of DON occurrence in beers from the Italian market. Seventy-two craft and industrial beer samples were tested using the RIDASCREEN DON® ELISA method. DON was found in all samples. The average DON contamination was 34.3 ug/L (range: 6.1-111.2 ug/L). The highest contamination level was found in a wheat-based sample. Our study determined that wheat-based beers have a higher DON contamination than barley-based beers. Further studies are needed to verify the role of single ingredients on the risk of DON accumulation in beers.</div> M. GRUMI A. KUNOVA M. ISOTTI A. BARBIROLI M. PASQUALI Copyright (c) 2020 matias pasquali http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1826 ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AS A MEANS OF TRACING AQUATIC PRODUCTS AUTHENTICITY, SOURCE AND GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS https://www.itjfs.com/index.php/ijfs/article/view/1778 <div>Aquatic products provide good sources of high-quality protein for humans. Tracing the origin of aquatic products is of critical importance both for consumers and suppliers. In recent years, isotope analysis is becoming a key instrument in food products authentication. This work reviews the use of isotope analysis to trace the production sources (wild or farmed) and geographic origins of aquatic products. Extensive research has studied the isotope values of freshwater fish to Atlantic salmon, sea bass, rainbow trout, and other commercial fish and shellfish. Generally, the ratios of carbon (?<sup>13</sup>C) and nitrogen (?<sup>15</sup>N) stable isotopes were successfully investigated in aquatic products in order to identify the production methods or geographic origins. However, the predictable confidence of isotope analysis can be enhanced in combination with other analytical techniques, such as fatty acids and multi-element profiling. Moreover, future research to combine isotope analysis with data fusion and multivariate data evaluation is recommended.</div> H.T. TRUONGHUYNH G.B. LI G.K. JAGANATHAN Copyright (c) 2020 Hoa Thanh Truonghuynh, Ganesh K. Jaganathan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 32 3 10.14674/IJFS-1778