Main Article Content

P. Albert Arockia Raj
K. Radha
M. Vijayalakshmi
S. Pavulraj
P. Anuradha


papaya jam, papaya pulp, protein, substitution, texture, whey


The objective of the present study was to elaborate papaya jam by substituting paneer whey at 5 % and 10 % level of papaya pulp. Physico-chemical, sensory, microbial and texture analysis were performed at 0th, 30th and 60th day of storage. Protein content and texture of jams were significantly improved due to whey substitution. During storage, the acidity of jam showed increase from 0.55 to 0.60 % and accordingly pH decreased from 3.41 to 3.08 without any significant difference. Reducing sugar of jam increased from 16.12 to 19.05 % and that of non-reducing sugar decreased from 45.12 to 42.07 % without any significant difference during the storage period of 60 days. Taken together, whey can be efficiently substituted in papaya jam to improve nutritive value and texture of the product.

Abstract 1101 | PDF Downloads 483


1. AOAC, 2000. “Official Methods of Analysis” 17thed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
3. Ahmed T., Burhanuddin M., Haque M.A. and Hossain M.A. 2011.Preparation of Jam from Sapota (Achras zapota). The Agriculturists 9(1-2): 1-7. Doi: 10.3329/agric.v9i1-2.9473.
5. Anjum F.M., Maqam-ud-DinI. A., Ijaz and Pasha A.R. 2000. Preparation and evaluation of dried apricot diet jam. Pakistan Journal of Food Science 10(3-4): 21-23
7. Antunes A.E.C., Motta E.M.P. and Antunes A.J. 2003. Texture profile and water-holding capacity of whey protein concentrate acid gels. Food Science and Technology 23:183-189. Doi: 10.1590/S0101-20612003000400034
9. Aravind G., Bhowmik D., Duraivel S.and Harish G. 2013. Traditional and Medicinal uses of Carica papaya. Journal of Medicinal Plant Studies 1 (1): 7-15.
11. Ashaye O.A., BabalolaS.O.,. BabalolaA. O, Aina J.O. and Fasoyiro S.B2005. Chemical and Organoleptic Characterization of Pawpaw and Guava Leathers. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1 (1): 50-51.
13. Beuchat L.R. 1981.Microbial stability as affected by water activity. Cereal Foods World 26: 345-349.
15. Boye J.I., Ismail A.A. and Alli I. 1996. Effects of physiochemical factors on the secondary structure of ?- lactoglobulin. Journal of Dairy Research 63(1): 97-109. PMID: 8655744
17. Broomfield R.W., 1996. The manufacture of preserves, flavourings and dried fruits. Ch. 7. In “Fruit Processing”, D. Arthey and P.R. Ashurt (Ed.), p.165-195. Blackie Academic & Professional Publishing Co, New York.
19. Cancela M.A., Ivarez E. and Maceiras R. 2005. Effects of Temperature and Carboxymethylcellulose with Sugar Rheology. Journal of Food Engineering71: 419-424.
21. de Carvalho A.C.G., de Oliveira R.C.G., Navacchi M.F.P.,da CostaC.E.M., Mantovani D., Dacôme A.S., Seixas F.A.V. and da Costa S.C. 2013. Evaluation of the potential use of rebaudioside-A as sweetener for diet jam. Food Science and Technology 33(3): 555-560. Doi: 10.1590/S0101-20612013005000080
23. Damiani C., Vilas Boas E.V.B., Soares Junior M.S., Caliari M., Paula M.L., Pereira D.E.P. and Silva A.G.M. 2008. Physical, sensory and microbiological analysis of mango jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp. Ciência Rural 38: 1418-1423. Doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782008000500035
25. Desrosier N. W. and DesrosierJ. N. (Ed.).1978. “The technology of food preservation” 4th Ed. AVI Publishing Co. Inc. Westport, Connecticut. pp: 164-165.
26. DurantiM., Pagani S., Iametti S. and Carpen A.1989. Heat-induced changes of milk proteins rocket immunoelectrophoretic detection of alpha lactalbumin. Milchwissenschaft 44 (3): 142-144.
28. Ehsan, E.B., Naeem Z.P., Ghafoor A. and Bahtti M.S. 2002. Development, standardization and storage studies on watermelon lemon jam. Pakistan Journal of Food Science 12 (3-4): 21-24.
30. Ehsan E.B., Naeem Z.P., Javed A. and Nazir. A. 2003. Development, standardization and storage studies on grape fruit apple marmalade. Pakistan Journal of Food Science 13 (3-4): 11-15.
32. Eke-Ejiofor J. and Owuno F.2013. The physico-chemical and sensory properties of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophilus) jam. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 2(3): 149-152. Doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20130203.19
34. Fasogbon B.M., Gbadamosi S.O. and Taiwo K.A. 2013. Studies on the chemical and sensory properties of jam from osmotically dehydrated pineapple slices. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology 3(4): 1327-1335. Doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2013/3718
36. Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations. 2011. The Gazette of India: Extraordinary [Part III-Sec. 4] p. 348 – 349.
38. Gupte, A.M. and J.S. Nair, 2010. ?-galactosidase production and ethanol fermentation from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 69: 855-859.
40. Herrero A. M. and Requena T. 2006. The effect of supplementing goat’s milk with whey protein concentrate on textural properties of set-type yoghurt. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 41 (1): 87-92. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01045.x
42. Hussian I. and Shakir I. 2010. Chemical and orgnoleptic characteristic of jam prepared from indigenious varities of apricot and apple. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences 5(1): 73-78.
44. HughesE., MullenA.M.and Troy D.J. 1998. Effects of fat level, tapioca starch and whey protein on frankfurters formulated with 5% and 12% fat. Meat Science 48 (1-2):169-180. Doi: 10.1016/S0309-1740(97)00087-9
46. Hussain I., ZebA., Shakir I.and Shah A.S. 2008. Combined effect of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on individual and blended juices of apricot and apple fruits grown in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7: 181-185. Doi: 10.3923/pjn.2008.181.185
48. Javanmard M. and EndanJ. 2010. A Survey on Rheological Properties of Fruit Jams. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications 1(1): 31-37. Doi: 10.7763/IJCEA.2010.V1.6
50. Li J. and Guo M.R. 2006. Effects of Polymerized Whey Proteins on Consistency and Water-holding Properties of Goat’s Milk Yogurt. Journal of Food Science 71(1): 34-38. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.tb12385.x
52. Joy K.H.M. and Rani R.N.A. (2013). Formulation, sensory evaluation and nutrient analysis of products with aloe vera. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(6): 5321-5328.
54. Kerdsupa P. and Nakneana P. 2012. Effect of sorbitol substitution on physical, chemical and sensory properties of low-sugar mango jam. pp. 12, presented at 4th International Science, SocialScience, Engineering and Energy Conference, Petchburi, Thailand, December 11-14.
56. Khamrui K. and Rajorhia G.S. 1998. Making profits from whey. Indian Dairyman 50:13-18.
58. Khan R. U., Afridi S.R., Ilyas M., Sohail M. and Abid H. 2012. Development of strawberry jam and its quality evaluation during storage. Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 45(1): 23-25
60. Kulmyrzaev A, Bryant C. and Mc Clemente D.J. 2000. Influence of sucrose on the thermal denaturation, gelation and emulsion stabilization of whey proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 1593-1597. Doi: 10.1021/jf9911949
62. Lane J. H. and Eynon L. 1923. Methods for determination of reducing and nonreducing sugars. Journal of Science 42: 32-37.
64. Luh B.S. and WoodroofJ.G. 1975. Commercial Vegetable Processing. AVI Publishing Co, Westport, Connecticut, USA, pp: 649-650.
66. Macrae R., Robinson R.K. and Sadler M. J. 1993. Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition.Academic Press Publication. Ltd., London, 3:2120-2123.
68. Mamede M.E.O., Carvalho L.D., Viana E.S., Oliveria L.A., Filho W.S.S. and Ritzinger R. 2013. Production of dietetic jam of Umbu- caja (Spondias sp): Physical, physicochemical and sensorial evaluations. Food and Nutrition Sciences 4: 461-468. Doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.44059
70. Matsuura F.C.A.U., Folegatti M.I.D.S., Cardoso R.L. and Ferreira D.C. 2004. Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola. Science Agriculture. 61: 604- 608. Doi: 10.1590/S0103-90162004000600007
72. Misra A.K. 2009. Whey management in Dairying. Diary Year Book. 4th Edn, pp 125.
74. Muhammad A., Durrani Y., Zeb A., Ayub M. and Ullah J. 2008. Development of diet jam from apple grown in swat (NWFP). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 24(3): 461-467.
76. Naik Y.K., Khare A., Choudhary P.L., Goel B.K., Shrivastava A. 2009. Studies on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of whey based watermelon beverage. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry 2: 57-59.
78. Parsi Ros O. 1976. The preparation of papaya jam. Journal of Agricultural University. 60(1): 129-131.
80. Ranganna S. (Ed.). 1986. “Handbook of Analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable products”. 2nd ed . Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co, New Delhi, India, pp: 670-678
82. Ranganna S. (Ed.) 2008. “Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable products”. 15 th ed. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co, New Delhi, India pp. 623-624.
84. Rauch G. H. 1965. Jam Manufacture, 2 nd ed. Leonard Hill Books, London, pp: 78-82.
86. Ray B. and Bhunia A. 2014. Fundamental food microbiology.5 th ed CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida pp: 66.
88. ReddyG.L., RaoB.V.R., Reddy K.S.R. and Venkayya D. 1987. Development of a whey beverage. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 40(4): 445-450.
90. Renner E.1990. Nutritional aspects. In: Whey and Lactose Processing J.G. Zadow (ed.), Elsevier Appl. Sci., London, P. 449.
92. Riaz M. N., Mohyuddin G. and Al HaqM. I. 1999. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of jams made from fresh and frozen strawberries. Pakistan Journal of Arid Agriculture 2 (1): 51-60.
94. Salvador A.C., Dantas M.I.S., Vasconcelos C.M., Vanetti M.C.D., Ribeiro S.M.R., Nery-Enes B., Nelson J.D. and Martino H.S.D. 2012. Development of a low calorie yacon jam: physico chemical, microbiological and sensory characterization. Revista chilena de nutrición 39(3): 72-77. Doi: 10.4067/S0717-75182012000300011
96. Santos M.S., de Lima J.J., Petkowicz C.L.O. and Candido L.M.B. 2013. Chemical characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of gabiroba jam (Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg). Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy 35(19): 73-82. Doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.14389
98. Shakir I., Durrani Y., Hussain I., Qazi I.M. and Zeb A. 2008. Physicochemical analysis of apple and pear mixed fruit jam prepared from varieties grown in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan journal of Nutrition. 7(1): 177-180. Doi: 10.3923/pjn.2008.177.18
Siso M.I.G. 1996. The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: A review. Bioresource Technology 57:1–11. Doi: 10.1016/0960-8524(96)00036-3
Taufik Y.C.M. and Karim M.N.A. 1992. Storage stability of ciku leather. ASEAN Food Journal 1(7): 53-55.
Teangpook C. and Paosantong U. 2013. Production and shelf-life of low sucrose lime juice papaya jam. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 12 (9): 870-878. Doi: 10.3923/pjn.2013.870.878
Vidhya R. and Narain A. 2011. Formulation and evaluation of preserved products utilizing under exploited fruit, wood apple (Limonia acidissima). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 10 (1): 112-118.
Vidigal, M.C.T.R., Minim V.P.R., Ramos A.M., Ceresino E.B., Diniz M.D.M.S., Camilloto G.P.and Minim L.A. 2012. Effect of whey protein concentrate on texture of fat-free desserts: sensory and instrumental measurements. Food Science and Technology 32(2): 412-418. Doi: 10.1590/S0101-20612012005000047
Zaman W., Biswas S. K., Helali M.O.H., Ibrahim M. and Parvez H. 2006. Physico-Chemical Composition of Four Papaya Varieties Grown at Rajshahi. Journal of Bio-Science 14: 83-86. Doi: 10.3329/jbs.v14i0.448
Zhang W. and Zhong Q. 2010. Microemulsions as nanoreactors to produce whey protein nanoparticles with enhanced heat stability by thermal pretreatment. Food Chemistry 119: 1318-1325. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.043