Development and characterization of high nutritional value snack bar as a complementary source of nutrients in supporting the growth of pregnant women: chemical, physical, and sensory properties

Main Article Content

Sofyan Maghaydah
Mahmoud Abughoush
Amal Aljanada
Imranul H. Choudhury


anise, chia seeds, chickpea flour, ESHA’s food processor, high nutritional snack bar, inulin, mastic, moringa leaves powder, nutrition analysis, pregnant women, quinoa flour, sensory evaluation, stevia


Developing high nutritional value pregnant bar products as a source of different nutrients to support daily-consumed poor is considered a practical goal to increase pregnant crucial nutrient intake. This research aims to develop high nutritional snack bar as a complementary to support the nutrient requirements in pregnant women using a mixture of grains (chickpea and quinoa flours) along with wheat flour in addition to chia seeds, inulin, moringa leaves powder, anise, mastic and stevia. This study was conducted in two stages. Seven treatments of quinoa and chickpea flour levels in the ratio of (1:2) with wheat flour were produced. Proximate analysis, physical proprieties, color analysis, and sensory evaluation test were determined. This highly nutritional snack bar has larger contents of protein, fiber, lipids, and ash, as well as lower amounts of moisture and carbohydrate content compared to wheat flour control. Moreover, physical properties: snack bar samples’ weight, diameter and thickness decreased as the concentration of chickpea and quinoa flours increased. The results of the color analysis showed that there were significant differences in lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) values between the control and the seven snack bar treatments, which showed lower lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) color values and higher redness (a*) color values. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the most accepted treatment was treatment 7, which had 47.5% wheat flour, 35% chickpea flour, and 17.5% quinoa flour. Developing a high-nutrient-value snack bar as a complementary source of nutrients to support and cover most pregnant women’s nutrient requirements, maintaining necessary daily needs with controlled calorie intake and high quality and acceptability.

Abstract 262 | PDF Downloads 166 HTML Downloads 0 XML Downloads 22


AACC. (2000). Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists; Methods 44-15A, 08–01, 46-10, 30-10, 32-10, 10-50D; American Association of Cereal Chemists: St. Paul, MN, USA, 2000.

Abdolhosseini, S., Dabaghian, F.H., Mehrabani, M., & Mokaberinejad, R. (2017). A review of herbal medicines for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in traditional Persian medicine. Galen Medical Journal, 6(4), 281–290. 10.31661/gmj.v6i4.809

Ahmed, W., & Rashid, S. (2019). Functional and therapeutic potential of inulin: A comprehensive review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59(1), 1–13. 10.1080/10408398.2017.1355775

Akubor, P.I., & Ukwuru, M.U. (2003). Functional properties and biscuit-making potential of soybean and cassava flour blends. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58, 1–12. 10.1023/b:qual.0000040344.93438.df

Alrayyes, W.H. (2018). Nutritional and health benefits enhancement of wheat-based food products using chickpea and distiller’s dried grains [PhD Dissertation, South Dakota State University].

Al-Rubai, D.M. (2016). The effect of replacing wheat flour with chickpea powder (cicer arietinum l.) and nonfat dry milk in qualitative properties of muffin. Basrah Journal of Agricultural and Sciences, 29, 119–135. 10.33762/bagrs.2016.120230

Altan, A., McCarthy, K.L., & Maskan, M. (2008). Twin-screw extrusion of barley–grape pomace blends: extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions. Journal of Food Engineering, 2008, 89, 24–32. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.03.025

Ashura, K.K., Lillian, D.K., Oscar, K., & Leonard, M.R. (2021). Nutritional, health benefits and usage of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): a review. African Journal of Food Science, 15, 48–59. 10.5897/AJFS2020.2015

Bawadi, H.A., Al-Kuran, O., Al-Bastoni, L.A.A., Tayyem, R.F., Jaradat, A., Tuuri, G., et al. (2010). Gestational nutrition improves outcomes of vaginal deliveries in Jordan: an epidemiologic screening. Nutrition Research, 30, 110–117. 10.1016/j.nutres.2010.01.005

Bhathal, S., Grover, K., & Gill, N. (2015). Quinoa-a treasure trove of nutrients. Journal of Nutrition Research, 3, 45–49. 10.55289/jnutres/v3i1.2

Bhathal, S.K., & Kaur, N. (2018). Nutritional analysis of gluten free products from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 6, 826–836. 10.18782/2320-7051.2852

Blau, L.E., Lipsky, L.M., Dempster, K.W., Colman, M.H.E., Siega-Riz, A.M., Faith, M.S., et al. (2020). Women’s experience and understanding of food cravings in pregnancy: a qualitative study in women receiving prenatal care at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120, 815–824. 10.1016/j.jand.2019.09.020

Burešová, I., Tokár, M., Mareček, J., Hřivna, L., Faměra, O., & Šottníková, V. (2017). The comparison of the effect of added amaranth, buckwheat, chickpea, corn, millet, and quinoa flour on rice dough rheological characteristics, textural and sensory quality of bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 75, 158–164. 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.04.004

Chopra, N., Rani, R., & Singh, A. (2018). Physico-nutritional and sensory properties of cookies formulated with quinoa, sweet potato and wheat flour blends. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 6, 798–806. 10.12944/CRNFSJ.6.3.22

Constantin, O.E., & Istrati D.I. (2018). Functional properties of snack bars; IntechOpen: London, UK, pp. 1–14. 10.5772/intechopen.73983

Daraz, O., Farooq, U., Shafi, A., Hayat, K., & Khan, M.Z. (2020). Development of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) supplemented cookies. Agricultural Sciences Journal, 2, 56–66.

De Falco, B., Amato, M., & Lanzotti, V. (2017). Chia seeds products: an overview. Phytochemistry Reviews, 16, 745–760. 10.1007/s11101-017-9511-7

De Vrese, M. (2009). Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women. Menopause International, 15, 35–40. 10.1258/mi.2009.009008

Dhankhar, J., Vashistha, N., & Sharma, A. (2021). Development of biscuits by partial substitution of refined wheat flour with chickpea flour and date powder. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 1093–1097. 10.15414/jmbfs.2019.8.4.1093-1097

Doxastakis, G., Zafiriadis, I., Irakli, M., Marlani, H., & Tananaki, C. (2002). Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties. Food Chemistry, 77, 219–227. 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00362-4

Dragović, S., Dragović-Uzelac, V., Pedisić, S., Čošić, Z., Friščić, M., Garofulić, I.E., et al. (2020). The mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) leaves as source of BACs: Effect of growing location, phenological stage and extraction solvent on phenolic content. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 58(3), 303. 10.17113/ftb.

Eid, A.M., & Jaradat, N. (2020). Public knowledge, attitude, and practice on herbal remedies used during pregnancy and lactation in West Bank Palestine. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 46. 10.3389/fphar.2020.00046

Fahey, J.W. (2005). Moringa oleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for life Journal, 1(5), 1–15.

Fowles, E.R., & Fowles, S.L. (2008). Healthy eating during pregnancy: determinants and supportive strategies. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 25, 138–152. 10.1080/07370010802221727

Gbenga-Fabusiwa, F.J., Oladele, E.P., Oboh, G., Adefegha, S.A., & Oshodi, A.A. (2018). Nutritional properties, sensory qualities and glycemic response of biscuits produced from pigeon pea-wheat composite flour. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 42(4), e12505. 10.1111/jfbc.12505

Goesaert, H., Brijs, K., Veraverbeke, W.S., Courtin, C.M., Gebruers, K., & Delcour, J.A. (2005). Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 16(1–3), 12–30. 10.1016/j.tifs.2004.02.011

Gómez, M., Oliete, B., Rosell, C.M., Pando, V., & Fernández, E. (2008). Studies on cake quality made of wheat–chickpea flour blends. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41, 1701–1709. 10.1016/j.lwt.2007.11.024

Goñi, I., & Valentı´n-Gamazo, C. (2003). Chickpea flour ingredient slows glycemic response to pasta in healthy volunteers. Food Chemistry, 81, 511–515. 10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00480-6

Goyat, J., Passi, S.J., Suri, S., & Dutta, H. (2018). Development of chia (Salvia hispanica, L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, L.) seed flour substituted cookies-physicochemical, nutritional and storage studies. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 6, 757–769. 10.12944/CRNFSJ.6.3.18

Gupta, S., Liu, C., & Sathe, S.K. (2019). Quality of a chickpea-based high protein snack. Journal of Food Science, 2019, 84, 1621–1630. 10.1111/1750-3841.14636

Gupta, E., Purwar, S., Sundaram, S., & Rai, G. K. (2013). Nutritional and therapeutic values of Stevia rebaudiana: a review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7(46), 3343–3353. 10.5897/JMPR2013.5276

Hadju, V., Dassir, M., Sadapotto, A., Putranto, A., Marks, G., & Arundhana, A.I. (2020). Effects of moringa oleifera leaves and honey supplementation during pregnancy on mothers and newborns: a review of the current evidence. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(F), 208–214.

Hsu, M.C., Tung, C.Y., & Chen, H.E. (2018). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in prevention and treatment of maternal depression: putative mechanism and recommendation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 238, 47–61. 10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.018

Ibrahium, M.I. (2015). Minerals bioavailability of wheat biscuit supplemented by quinoa flour. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 4(04), 769–778.

Iglesias-Puig, E., Monedero, V., & Haros, M. (2015). Bread with whole quinoa flour and bifidobacterial phytases increases dietary mineral intake and bioavailability. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 60(1), 71–77. 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.09.045

Ishak, S.F., Abd Majid, H.A.M., Zin, Z.M., & Jipiu, L.B. (2020). Physicochemical properties and sensory acceptability of prebiotic snack bar with addition of gum Arabic (Acacia Seyal). 9th Kuala Lumpur International Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation Conference, Bangi Resort Hotel, Malaysia, 21–22 September.

Islas-Rubio, A.R., de la Barca, A.M.C., Molina-Jacott, L.E., del Carmen Granados-Nevárez, M., & Vasquez-Lara, F. (2014). Development and evaluation of a nutritionally enhanced multigrain tortilla snack. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 69, 128–133. 10.1007/s11130-014-0408-y

Jagannadham, K., Parimalavalli, R., Babu, A.S., & Rao, J.S. (2014). A study on comparison between cereal (wheat) and noncereal (chickpea) flour characteristics. International Journal Current Trend Research, 3(2), 70–76.

James, L.E.A. (2009). Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 58, 1–31. 10.1016/s1043-4526(09)58001-1

Jamieson, J.A., Viana, L., & English, M.M. (2020). Folate content and chemical composition of commercially available gluten-free flour alternatives. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 75, 337–343. 10.1007/s11130-020-00833-z

Jayasena, V., & Nasar-Abbas, S.M. (2011). Effect of lupin flour incorporation on the physical characteristics of dough and biscuits. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 3(3), 140–147. 10.1111/j.1757-837x.2011.00100.x

Jukanti, A.K., Gaur, P.M., Gowda, C.L.L., & Chibbar, R.N. (2012). Nutritional quality and health benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a review. British Journal of Nutrition, 108, 11–26. 10.1017/S0007114512000797

Kaiser, L., & Allen, L.H. (2008). Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108, 553–561. 10.1016/j.jada.2008.01.030

Kaur, R., & Prasad, K. (2021). Technological, processing and nutritional aspects of chickpea (Cicer arietinum): a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 109, 448–463. 10.1016/j.tifs.2021.01.044

Kolida, S., Tuohy, K., & Gibson, G.R. (2002). Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose. British Journal of Nutrition, 87, 193–197. 10.1079/BJN/2002537

Krahl, T., Fuhrmann, H., & Dimassi, S. (2016). Coloration of cereal-based products. Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages, pp. 227–236. Woodhead Publishing. 10.1016/B978-0-08-100371-8.00011-7

Lin, J., Gu, Y., & Bian, K. (2019). Bulk and surface chemical composition of wheat flour particles of different sizes. Journal of Chemistry, 2019. 10.1155/2019/5101684

Lorenz, K., & Coulter, L. (1991). Quinoa flour in baked products. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 41, 213–223. 10.1007/bf02196389

Makpoul, K.R., & Ibrahem, A.A. (2015). Improving biscuit nutritional value using quinoa flour. Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences, 6, 771–780. 10.21608/JFDS.2015.50109

Man, S., Păucean, A., Muste, S., & Pop, A. (2015). Effect of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flour addition on physicochemical properties of wheat bread. Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology, 72, 41–49. 10.15835/buasvmcn-fst:11023

Maslova, E., Halldorsson, T.I., Astrup, A., & Olsen, S.F. (2015). Dietary protein-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open, 5(2). 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005839

Mensink, M.A., Frijlink, H.W., van der Voort Maarschalk, K., & Hinrichs, W.L. (2015). Inulin, a flexible oligosaccharide I: Review of its physicochemical characteristics. Carbohydrate Polymers, 130, 405–419. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.05.026

Miao, M., Dai, Y., Rui, C., Fan, Y., Wang, X., Fan, C., et al. (2021). Dietary supplementation of inulin alleviates metabolism disorders in gestational diabetes mellitus mice via the RENT/AKT/IRS/GLUT4 pathway. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 13(1), 1–14.

Mohammed, A.T., Gomaa, A.R., & Ibrahim, S.T. (2019). Effect of pre-treatment techniques on the quality characteristics of quinoa flour. Suez Canal University Journal of Food Sciences, 6, 75–86.

Momanyi, D., Owino, W., & Makokha, A. (2020). Formulation, nutritional and sensory evaluation of baobab based ready-to-eat sorghum and cowpea blend snack bars. Scientific African, 7, e00215. 10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00215

Montemurro, M., Pontonio, E., & Rizzello, C.G. (2019). Quinoa flour as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional features of cereal-based foods. Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention, pp. 453–464. 10.1016/B978-0-12-814639-2.00036-8

Moses, R.G., Luebcke, M., Davis, W.S., Coleman, K.J., Tapsell, L.C., Petocz, P., & Brand-Miller, J.C. (2006). Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(4), 807–812. 10.1093/ajcn/84.4.807

Motyka, S., Koc, K., Ekiert, H., Blicharska, E., Czarnek, K., & Szopa, A. (2022). The current state of knowledge on Salvia hispanica and Salviae hispanicae semen (chia seeds). Molecules, 27(4), 1207. 10.3390/molecules27041207

Musaiger, A.O., Hammad, S.S., Tayyem, R.F., & Qatatsheh, A.A. (2015). Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 27, 299–305. 10.1515/ijamh-2014-0029

Noor Aziah, A.A., Mohamad Noor, A.Y., & Ho, L.H. (2012). Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flour. International Food Research Journal, 19, 1539–1543. 10.13140/2.1.4554.8164

Ouazib, M., Garzon, R., Zaidi, F., & Rosell, C.M. (2016). Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53, 2664–2672. 10.1007/s13197-016-2238-4

Priatama, A.R., & Nuraeni, I. (2019). Development of arrowroot flour and taro flour snack bar with banana bud flour supplementation as snack for diabetes patient. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 250, 012084. 10.1088/1755-1315/250/1/012084

Rababah, T.M., Al-Mahasneh, M.A., & Ereifej, K.I. (2006). Effect of chickpea, broad bean, or isolated soy protein additions on the physicochemical and sensory properties of biscuits. Journal of Food Science, 71, 438–442. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00077.x

Rababah, T.M., Brewer, S., Yang, W., Al-Mahasneh, M., Al-U’datt, M., Rababa, S., et al. (2012). Physicochemical properties of fortified corn chips with broad bean flour, chickpea flour or isolated soy protein. Journal of Food Quality, 35, 200–206. 10.1111/j.1745-4557.2012.00440.x

Rachwa-Rosiak, D., Nebesny, E., & Budryn, G. (2015). Chickpeas—composition, nutritional value, health benefits, application to bread and snacks: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55, 1137–1145. 10.1080/10408398.2012.687418

Rahmi, Y., Kurniawati, A.D., Widyanto, R.M., Ariestiningsih, A.D., Al Farahi, A.Z.A., Ruchaina, A.N., et al. (2021). The sensory, physical and nutritional quality profiles of purple sweet potato and soy-based snack bars for pregnant women. Journal of Public Health Research, 10, 2241. 10.4081/jphr.2021.2241

Raja, R.R., Sreenivasulu, M., Vaishnavi, S., Navyasri, D.M., Samatha, G., & Geethalakshmi, S. (2016). Moringa oleifera-an overview. RA Journal of Applied Research, 2, 620–624.

Rasulu, H., & Juharnib, J. (2021). The physicochemical characteristics of smart food bars enriched with moringa leaf extract and chitosan as an emergency food in disaster times. International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2, 24–28. 10.46676/ij-fanres.v2i3.51

Rush, E., Yan, M., Parsons, A., Kelleher, J., & Brown, D. (2016). Concept to sale of a healthier snack bar. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science, 3, 195–198. 10.15436/2377-0619.16.044

Sambou Diatta, B. (2001). Supplementation for pregnant and breast-feeding women with Moringa oleifera powder. In Development potential for moringa product. International workshop. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 29.

Shah, F.U.H., Sharif, M.K., Butt, M.S., & Shahid, M. (2017). Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks. Journal of Texture Studies, 48, 221–230. 10.1111/jtxs.12231

Sibian, M.S., & Riar, C.S. (2020). Formulation and characterization of cookies prepared from the composite flour of germinated kidney bean, chickpea, and wheat. Legume Science, 2, 42 10.1002/leg3.42

Singletary, K.W. (2022). Anise: potential health benefits. Nutrition Today, 57(2), 96–109. 10.1097/NT.0000000000000534

Stikic, R., Glamoclija, D., Demin, M., Vucelic-Radovic, B., Jovanovic, Z., Milojkovic-Opsenica, D., et al. (2012). Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations. Journal of Cereal Science, 55, 132–138. 10.1016/j.jcs.2011.10.010

Tabanca, N., Nalbantsoy, A., Kendra, P.E., Demirci, F., & Demirci, B. (2020). Chemical characterization and biological activity of the mastic gum essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia from Turkey. Molecules, 25(9), 2136. 10.3390/molecules25092136

Thejasri, V., Hymavathi, T.V., Roberts, T.P., Anusha, B., & Devi, S.S. (2017). Sensory, physico-chemical and nutritional properties of gluten free biscuits formulated with Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and hydrocolloids. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 1710–1721. 10.20546/ijcmas.2017.608.205

Torra, M., Belorio, M., Ayuso, M., Carocho, M., Ferreira, I.C., Barros, L., et al. (2021). Chickpea and chestnut flours as non-gluten alternatives in cookies. Foods, 10, 911. 10.3390/foods10050911

Topčagić, A., Ćavar Zeljković, S., Kezić, M., & Sofić, E. (2022). Fatty acids and phenolic compounds composition of anise seed. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 46(10), e15872. 10.1111/jfpp.15872

Twfik, F.M., Sulieman, A.M., Barakat, A.S., Abbas, M.S., & Sobhy, H.M. (2016). Production of healthy snacks from barley, chickpea, lettuce seeds and herb distributed in EGYPT. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24, 513–523. 10.21608/ajs.2016.14349

Vasan, A., Boora, P., & Khetarpaul, N. (2017). Grab a healthy bite: nutritional evaluation of barley based cookies. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 36, 76–79. 10.18805/ajdfr.v36i01.7464

Vergara-Jimenez, M., Almatrafi, M.M., & Fernandez, M.L. (2017). Bioactive components in Moringa oleifera leaves protect against chronic disease. Antioxidants, 6(4), 91. 10.3390/antiox6040091

Wan, X., Guo, H., Liang, Y., Zhou, C., Liu, Z., Li, K., & Wang, L. (2020). The physiological functions and pharmaceutical applications of inulin: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 246, 116589. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116589

Yadav, R.B., Yadav, B.S., & Dhull, N. (2012). Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49, 207–213. 10.1007/s13197-011-0271-x

Yamsaengsung, R., Berghofer, E., & Schoenlechner, R. (2012). Physical properties and sensory acceptability of cookies made from chickpea addition to white wheat or whole wheat flour compared to gluten-free amaranth or buckwheat flour. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47, 2221–2227. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03092.x

Zafar, T.A., Aldughpassi, A., Al-Mussallam, A., & Al-Othman, A. (2020). Microstructure of whole wheat versus white flour and wheat-chickpea flour blends and dough: impact on the glycemic response of pan bread. International Journal of Food Science, 1–2. 10.1155/2020/8834960