Main Article Content



cow milk,, goat milk, kefir, shelf-life, storage


Present study was aimed to determine the changes and the best consumption time of kefir samples made from cow and goat milk using starter culture during the storage at the refrigerator (+4°C for 35 days). It was found that goat kefir (GK) samples had higher pH and lipolysis values during storage while cow kefir (CK) samples had higher values of viscosity. The counts of lactococci, lactobacilli, leuconostoc, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, acetic acid bacteria and yeast decreased during the storage. Amounts of lactic, acetic, citric, pyruvic and oxalic acids were higher in GK samples. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl and acetoin contents were higher in CK samples. The highest sensory scores were obtained for CK samples on 14th day and for GC sample on 21th day of the storage.
Abstract 349 | pdf Downloads 256


Bensmira M. and Jiang B. 2012. Effect of Some Operating Variables on the Microstructure and Physical Properties of a Novel Kefir Formulation. Journal of Food Engineering 108:579-584.

Beshkova D.M., Simova E.D., Frengova G.I., Simov Z.I. and Dimitrov Z.P. 2003. Production of Volatile Aroma Compounds by Kefir Starter Cultures. International Dairy Journal 13:529-535.

Cais-Sokolinska D., Danków R. and Pikul J. 2008. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteritics of Sheep Kefir during Storage. Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 7(2):63-73.

Case R.A., Bradley R.L. and Williams R.R. 1985.Chemical and physical methods. In: G. H. Richardson (Ed.), Standart Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. Washington D.C., USA: American Public Health Association.

Codex S.T.A.N. 2003. STAN 243-2003. Codex Standards for Fermented Milks.

Devore J. and Peck R. 1993. Statistics: The Exploration and Analysis of Data. Belmont, California, USA; Duxbury Press, An imprint of Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Dinkçi N., Kesenkas H., Korel F. and Kinik Ö. 2015. An Innovative Approach: Cow/Oat Milk Based Kefir. Mljekarstvo 65(3):177-186.

Drake M.A. 2009. Modern Sensory Practices In: S. Clark, M. Costello, M. A. Drake, F. Bodyfelt (Ed.), The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products (pp. 505-530), Second Edition. New York, USA: Springer.

Ertekin B. and Güzel-Seydim Z.B. 2010. Effect of fat replacers on Kefir Quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:543-548.

Garcia Fontán M.C., Martinez S., Franco I. and Carballo J. 2006. Microbiological and Chemical Changes during the Manufacture of Kefir Made from Cows’ Milk, Using A Commercial Starter Culture. International Dairy Journal 16:762-767.

Great Turkish Dictionary of the Turkish Language Institution (2019), February 2019.

Grønnevik H., Falstad M. and Narvhus J.A. 2011.Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Norwegian Kefir during Storage. International Dairy Journal 21:601-606.

Gul O., Mortas M., Atalar I., Dervisoglu M. and Kahyaoglu T. 2015. Manufacture and Characterization of Kefir made from Cow and Buffalo Milk, using Kefir Grain and Starter Culture. J. Dairy Sci. 98:1517-1525.

Gul O., Atalar I., Mortas M. and Dervisoglu M. 2018. Rheological, Textural, Colour and Sensorial Properties of Kefir Produced with Buffalo Milk using Kefir Grains and Starter Culture: A Comparison with Cows’ Milk Kefir. International Journal of Dairy Technology 71:73-80.

Güneser O. and Karagül-Yüceer Y. 2010. Keçi Sütünün Kefir Üretiminde Kullanilmasi: Fiziksel, Kimyasal ve Duyusal Özellikler.
Ulusal Keçicilik Kongresi, 24-26 Haziran 2010, Çanakkale.

Güzel-Seydim Z.B., Seydim A.C., Greene A.K. and Bodine A.B. 2000a. Determination of Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Substances in Kefir during Fermentation. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 1:35-43.

Güzel-Seydim Z.B., Seydim A.C. and Greene A.K. 2000b. Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Components Evolved during Refrigerated Storage of Kefir. Journal of Dairy Science 83(2):275-277.

Güzel-Seydim Z.B., Kök-Tas T. and Greene A.K. 2010. Kefir and Koumiss: Microbiology and Technology. In F. Yildiz (Ed.), Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products (pp. 143-163). Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

Huma N., Ghaffar F., Rafiq S., Pasha I., Sameen A., Hayat I. and Hussain I. 2018. Characterization of Milk Proteins from Different Animal Species through Gel Electrophoresis. Pakistan J. Zool. 50:1983-1986.

Hull M.E. 1947. Studies on Milk Proteins. II. Colorimetric Determination of the Partial Hydrolysis of the Proteins in Milk. J. Dairy Sci. 30, 881-884.

Irigoyen A., Arana I., Castiella M., Torre P. and Ibáñez F.C. 2005. Microbiological, Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Kefir during Storage. Food Chemistry 90:613-620.

Ismaiel A.A., Ghaly M.F. and El-Naggar A.K. 2011. Some physicochemical Analyses of Kefir Produced under Different Fermentation Conditions. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research 70:365-372.

Kaczynski L.K., Cais-Sokolinska D. and Rudzinska M. 2018. Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Kefir from Goats’ Milk during Storage. International Dairy Journal 85:35-40.

Kavas G. 2015. Kefirs Manufactured from Camel (Camelus Dramedarius) Milk and Cow Milk: Comporison of Some Chemical and Microbial Properties. Ital. J. Food Sci. 27:357-366.

Kesenkas H., Dinkçi N., Seçkin K., Kinik Ö., Gönç S., Ergönül P.G. and Kavas G. 2011. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of Soymilk Kefir. African Journal of Microbiology Research 5(22):3737-3746.

Kim D.H., Jeong D., Song K.Y. and Seo K.H. 2018. Comparison of Traditional and Backslopping Methods for Kefir Fermentation Based on Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics. LWT – Food Science and Technology 97:503-507.

Kurt A., Çakmakçi S. and Çaglar A. 1993. Süt ve Mamulleri Muayene ve Analiz Metotlari Rehberi. Erzurum, Türkiye: Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayinlari.

Leite A.M.O., Leite D.C.A., Del Aguila E.M., Alvares T.S., Peixoto R.S., Miguel M.A.L., Silva J.T. and Paschoalin M.F. 2013. Microbiological and Chemical Characteristics of Brazilian Kefir during Fermentation and Storage Processes. J.Dairy Sci. 96:4149-4159.

Magalhães K.T., Dragone G., de Melo Pereira G.V., Oliveira J.M., Domingues L., Teixeira J.A., Almeida e Silve J.B. and Schwan R.F. 2011. Comparative Study of the Biochemical Changes and Volatile Compound Formations during the Production of Novel Whey-Based Kefir Beverages and Traditional Milk Kefir. Food Chemistry 126:249-253.

Mainville I., Montpetit D., Durand N. and Farnworth E.R. 2001. Deactivating the Bacteria and Yeast in Kefir using Heat Treatment, Irradiation and High Pressure. International Dairy Journal 11:45-49.

Milani F.X. and Wendorff W.L. 2011. Goat and Sheep Milk Products in the United States (USA). Small Ruminant Research 101:134-139.

Muir D.D., Tamime A.Y. and Wszolek M. 1999. Comparison of the Sensory Propiles of Kefir, Buttermilk and Yogurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology 52(4):129-134.

Nurliyani, Sadewa A.H. and Sunarti. 2015. Kefir Properties Prepared with Goat Milk and Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Extract and its Influence on the Improvement of Pancreatic b-Cells in Diabetic Rats”, Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 27(10):727-735.

O’Brien K.V., Aryana K.J., Prinyawiwatkul W., Carabante Ordonez K.M. and Boeneke C. A. 2016. Short Communication: The effects of Frozen Storage on the Survival of Probiotic Microorganisms Found in Traditionally and Commercially Manufactured Kefir. Journal of Dairy Science 99:1-6.

Purnomo H. and Muslimin L.D. 2012. Chemical Characteristics of Pasteurised Goat Milk and Goat Milk Kefir Prepared using Different Amount of Indonesian Kefir Grains and Incubation Times. International Food Research Journal 19(2):791-794.

Rattray F.P. and O’Connell M.J. 2011. Kefir. In J.W. Fuquay, P.F. Fox, P.L.H. McSweeney (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (pp. 2):518-524, Second Edition. London, UK: Elsevier.

Sodini I., Montella J. and Tong P.S. 2005. Physical Properties of Yogurt Fortified with Various Commercial Whey Protein Concentrates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85:853-859.

Temiz H. and Kezer G. 2015. Effects of Fat Replacers on Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensorial Properties of Kefir made using Mixture of Cow and Goat’s Milk. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 39:1421-1430.

Tratnik L., Božanic R., Herceg Z. and Drgalic I. 2006. The quality of Plain and Supplemented Kefir from Goat’s and Cow’s Milk. International Journal of Dairy Technolog, 59(1):40-46.

Türker G., Kizilkaya B. and Arifoglu N. 2014. Determination of Organic Acid Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Kefir. Asian Journal of Chemistry 26(8):2443-2446.

Witthuhn R. C., Schoeman T., Cilliers A. and Britz T.J. 2005. Impact of Preservation and Different Packaging Condition on the Microbial Community and Activity of Kefir Grains. Food Microbiology 22:337-344.

Wszolek M., Tamime A.Y., Muir D.D. and Barclay M.N.I. 2001. Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol. 34:251-261.

Wszolek M., Kupiec-Teahan B., Skov Guldager H. and Tamime A.Y. 2006. Production of Kefir, Koumiss and Other Related Products. In A. Y. Tamime (Ed.), Fermented Milks (pp. 174-216). Ayr, UK: Blackwell Science.

Yaman H. 2011. Kefir: A Fermented Milk Product and Production Methods. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 4(1):43-56.

Yayggn H. 1994.Kefir ve Özellikleri. III. Süt ve Süt Ürünleri Sempozyumu, 2-3 Haziran 1994, Istanbul.

Yildiz-Akgül F., Yetisemiyen A., senel E. and Yildirim Z. 2018. Microbiollogical, Physicochemical, and Sensory Characteristics of Kefir Produced by Secondary Fermentation. Mljekarstvo 68(3):201-2013.