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agro-climatic conditions, chemical composition, growing zone, pine nuts, Pinus pinea


The aim of the study was to analyze the proximate composition of pine nuts harvested from 15 growing areas in Chile, Argentina, Italy, Spain, Turkey, and Israel. The main component was fat, followed by protein. Pine nuts from Chile and Argentina were similar, zones with the highest thermal oscillation and rainfall. Italian pine nuts had the highest fiber content, while Spanish nuts had the highest fat content. Israel presented the highest number of dry months, where pine nuts contained more protein and minerals, while nuts from Turkey showed an intermediate position. Minimum and maximum average temperatures, amount of dry months, and thermal oscillation affected the chemical composition.

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