Main Article Content
fresh cut apples, polymannans, enriched fruit, aloe vera gel
Recently, the interest in Aloe vera has been increased accordingly with its content in polymannas, which show many healthy effects. The vacuum impregnation (VI) was used to enrich apple slices with Aloe vera gel. The effects of vacuum level, vacuum and relaxation times on the main chemical and physical attributes were described. Results showed as, applying the best operating conditions, VI allowed to introduce Aloe vera gel into the pores of apple tissue reaching a content of polymannan between 1 and 8 mg/100 g of fresh apples.
Boudreau M.D. and Beland, F.A. 2006. An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe Barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera. J Environm Sci Heal C 24:103.
Box G. and Behnken D. 1960. Some new three level design for the study of quantitative variables factors. Technometrics 2(4):455.
Cabezas-Serrano A.B., Amodio M.L., Cornacchia R., Rinaldi R. and Colelli G. 2009. Suitability of five different potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) to be processed as fresh-cut products. Postharvest Biol Technol.gy, 53, 138-144.
Castagnini J.M., Betoret N., Betoret E. and Fito P. 2015. Vacuum impregnation and air drying temperature effect on individual anthocyanins and antiradical capacity of blueberry juice included into an apple matrix. Food Sci Technol-LEB 64:1289.
Chang X.L., Wang C., Feng Y. and Liu Z. 2006. Effects of heat treatments on the stabilities of polysaccharide substances and barbaloin in gel juice from Aloe vera Miller. J Food Eng 75(3):245.
Dagne E., Bisrat D., Viljoen A. and Van Wyk, B-E. 2000. Chemistry of Aloe species. Curr. Org. Chem. 4:1055.
Derossi A., De Pilli T. and Severini C. 2013a. Application of pulsed vacuum acidification for the pH reduction of mushrooms. Food Sci Technol-LEB 54:585.
Derossi A., Severini C., Del Mastro A. and De Pilli T. 2015b. Study and optimization of osmotic dehydration of cherry tomatoes in complex solution by response surface methodology and desirability approach. Food Sci Technol-LEB 60:641.
Derossi A., De Pilli T. and Severini C. 2013b. Application of vacuum impregnation techniques to improve the pH reduction of vegetables: study on carrots and eggplants. Food Bioprocess Tec. 6:3217.
Derossi A., Iliceto A., De Pilli T. and Severini C. 2015a. Application of vacuum impregnation with anti-freezing proteins to improve the quality of truffles. J Food Sci Techn. 52 (11):7200.
Eberendu A.R., Luta G., Edwards J.A., McAnalley B.H., Davis B., Rodriguez S. and Henry C.R. 2005. Quantitative Colorimetric Analysis of Aloe Polysaccharides as a Measure of Aloe Vera Quality in Commercial Products. J AOAC Int. 88 (3):684.
Eshun K. and He Q. 2004. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci. 44:91.
Femenia A., García-Pascual P., Simal S. and Rosselló C. 2003. Effects of heat treatment and dehydration on bioactive polysaccharide acemannan and cell wall polymers from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr Polym. 51(4):397.
Femenia A., Sánchez E.S., Simal S. and Rosselló, C. 1999. Compositional features of polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) plant tissues. Carbohyd Polym. 39(2):109.
Geremias R., Pedrosa R.C., Locatelli C., de Fávere V.T., Coury Pedrosa R. and Laranjeira N.C.M. 2006. Lipid lowering activity of hydrosoluble chitosan and association with Aloe vera L. and Brassica oleracea L. Phytother Res. 20:288.
Gras M., Vidal-Brotóns D., Betoret N., Chiralt A. and Fito P. 2002. The response of some vegetables to vacuum impregnation. Inn Food Sci Emerg. 3:263.
Habeeb F., Shakir E., Bradbury F., Cameron P., Taravati M.R., Drummond A.J., Gray A.I. and Ferro V.A. 2007. Screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of Aloe vera inner gel. Methods. 42:315.
Hamman J.H. 2008. Composition and application of aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules. 13:1599.
Lee J.K., Lee M.K., Yun Y.P., Kim Y., Kim J.S., Kim Y.S., Kim K., Han S.S. and Lee C.K. 2001. Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 1:1275.
Lim B.O., Seong N.S., Choe R.W., Kim J.D., Lee H.Y., Kim S.Y., Yu B.P., Jeon T.I. and Park D.K. 2003. Efficacy of dietary Aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.49:292.
Martinez-Monzo J., Barat J.M., Gonzalez-Martinez C., Chiralt A. and Fito P. 2000. Changes in thermal properties of apple due to vacuum impregnation. J Food Eng. 43(4):213.
Martinez-Monzo J., Martinez-Navarrete N., Chiralt A. and Fito P. 1998. Mechanical and structural changes in apple (var. Granny Smith) due to Vacuum Impregnation with cryoprotectants. J Food Sci. 63:499.
McAnalley B.H. 1993. Process for preparation of Aloe products. European Patent WO 89/06539.
Moreno J., Espinoza C., Simpson R., Petzold R., Huñez H. and Gianelli M.P. 2016. Application of ohmic heating/vacuum impregnation treatments and air drying to develop an apple snack enriched in folic acid. Inn Food Sci Emerg.33:381.
Mujica-Paz H., Valdez-Fragoso A., Lopez-Malo A., Palou E. and Welti-Chanes J. 2003. Impregnation properties of some fruits at vacuum pressure. J Food Eng. 56:307.
Neri L., Di Biase L., Sacchetti G., Di Mattia C., Santarelli V., Mastrocola D. and Pittia P. 2016. Use of vacuum impregnation for the production of high quality fresh-like apple products. J Food Eng. 179:98.
Newton L.E. 2004. Aloes in habitat. In reynolds, T. (Eds). Aloes The Genus Aloe, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 3-36.
Ni Y., Turner D., Yates K.M. and Tizard I. 2004. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int Immunopharmacol. 4:1745.
Paes S.S., Stringari G.B. and Laurindo J.B. 2007. Effect of vacuum and relaxation periods and solution concentration on the osmotic dehydration of apples. Int J Food Sci Tech. 42:441.
Pellizzoni M., Ruzickova G., Kalhotka L. and Lucini L. 2012. Antimicrobial activity of different Aloe barbadensis Mill. and Aloe arborescens Mill. Leaf fractions. J Med Plents Res. 6(10):1975.
Puente P.L., Betoret N. and Cortes M. 2009. Evolution of probiotic content and color of apples impregnated with lactic acid bacteria. Vita. 16:297.
Ramachandra C.T. and Srinivasa Rao P. 2008. Processing of Aloe Vera Leaf Gel: A Review. Am. Journal and Agril. & Biol. Sci. 3(2):502.
Reynolds T. and Dweck A.C. 1999. Aloe vera leaf gel: A revise update. Review Article. J Ethnopharmacol. 68:3.
Robertfroid M.B. 2000. A European consensus of scientific concepts of functional foods. Nutrition. 16:689.
Roberts D.B. and Travis E.L. 1995. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. Int J Radiat Oncol. 32:1047.
Rodriguez E.R., Martin J.D. and Romero C.D. 2010. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci. 50(4):305.
Salvatori D., Andres A., Chiralt A. and Fito P. 1998. The response of some properties of fruits to vacuum impregnation. J Food Process Eng. 21:59.
Sanzana S., Gras M.L. and Vidal-Brotóns D. 2011. Functional foods enriched in Aloe vera. Effects of vacuum impregnation and temperature on the respiration rate and the respiratory quotient of some vegetables. Procedia Food Science. 1:1528.
Schulze B., Hubbermann E.M. and Schwarz K. 2014. Stability of quercetin derivatives in vacuum impregnated apple slices after drying (microwave vacuum drying, air drying, freeze drying) and storage. Food Sci Technol-LEB. 57:426.
Vega-Gálvez A., Miranda M., Aranda M., Henriquez K., Vergara J., Tabilo-Munizaga G. and Pérez-Won M. 2011. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on functional properties and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller). Food Chem. 129:1060.
Wu J., Gao H., Zhao L., Liao X., Chen F., Wang Z. and Hu X. 2007. Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars. Food Chem. 103:88.
Young Y. 2000. Functional foods and the European consumer. In J. Buttriss, & M. Saltmarsh (Eds.). Functional foods. II. Claims and evidence. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry.