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central composite design, gluten-free, pasta making, quality, starch, texture


Rice and field bean semolina was used to obtain protein- and fiber-enriched gluten-free pasta. The tests covered the effect of pre-gelatinized rice flour used as a gluten-free pasta improver. A central composite design was applied involving the water hydration level and pre-treated rice flour level. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, texture, hydration index, pasting and thermal properties, and microstructure) were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. The results showed that the application of hydrothermally treated rice flour improved the cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum recipe contained 5.845 g of pre-gelatinized rice flour and 59.266 mL of water, both selected based on the desirability function approach with the value of 0.775 corresponding to the optimum pasta properties.

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