Main Article Content
health risk assessment, OCPs, PCBs, raw milk
Dietary exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), generically named organochlorine compounds (OCCs) represents nowadays an important health risk for humans, due to their endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic effects. In order to assess the potential health risk associated with raw milk consumption 10 milk samples were collected from a local market in Baia-Mare industrial area, Romania. The concentrations of OCPs and PCB congeners in these samples were determined by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, after liquid-liquid extraction. In all samples, the OCCs were below the maximum admitted concentrations set by European legislation. The most predominant compounds were 4,4’-DDE (11.5 ng/g lipid wt.), B-HCH (10.1 ng/g lipid wt.) and PCB180 (5.08 ng/g lipid wt.). Exposure assessment through milk consumption was performed for male, female and children, by calculating the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and the hazard indices (HIs) for non-carcinogenic effects. The obtained EDIs were lower than the acceptable daily intake values and HIs were far below 1, indicating no potential health risk for the investigated population.
BediJ.S., Gill J.P.S., Aulakh R.S. and Kaur P., 2015. Pesticide Residues in bovine milk in Punjab, India: Spatial variation and risk assessment to human health, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 69:230-240.
Cadar O., Miclean M., Cadar S., Tanaselia C., Senila L. and Senila M. 2015. Assessment of heavy metals in cows milk in Rodnei mountains area, Romania, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 14(11):2523-2528.
Caspersen I.H., Kvalem H.E., Haugen M., Brantsæter A.L., Meltzer H.M., Alexander J., Thomsen C., Frøshaug M., Bremnes N.M., Broadwell S.L., Granum B., Kogevinas M. and Knutsen H.K. 2016. Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3-year-old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, Environ. Res. 146:136-144.
Cerná M., Krsková A., Smíd J. and Maly M. 2016. Exposure and risk assessment of the Czech population to chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls using archived serum samples from the period 1970 to 1990, Int. J. Hyg. Envir. Heal.219(4-5):443-453.
Cui L., Ge J., Zhu Y., Yang Y. and Wang J. 2015. Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22:15866-15879.
Deti H., Hymete A., Bekhit A.A., Mohamed A.M.I. and Bekhit A. El-D. 2014. Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia, Chemosphere 106:70-74.
EC (European Commission) 2006a. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, Official Journal of the European Union, L364, 5-24.
EC (European Commission) 2006b. Commission Directive 2006/13/EC of 3 February 2006 amending Annexes I and II to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed as regards dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, Official Journal of the European Union, L32, 34-38.
EC (European Commission) 2011. Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1259/2011 of 2 December 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuff, Official Journal of the European Union, L 320, 18-23.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) 2005. Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to the presence of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feed and food. The EFSA Journal 284, Annex I 1-48.
EFSA (European Food Safety) 2013. Guidance document for the use of the concise European food consumption database in exposure assessment, EFSA Journal 11(3):3130.
Ennaceur S., Gandoura N. and Driss M.R. 2008. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment. Environ. Res. 108:86-93.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization) 2006. Codex Maximum Limits for Pesticide Residues. Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO and WHO, Rome.
Gebremichael S., Birhanu T. and Tessema D.A. 2013. Analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in human and cow’s milk in the towns of Asendabo, Serbo and Jimma in South-Western Ethiopia. Chemosphere 90(5):1652-1657.
Heck M.C., Sifuentes Dos Santos J., Bogusz Junior S., Costabeber I. and Emanuelli T. 2007. Estimation of children exposure to organochlorine compounds through milk in Rio Grande doSul, Brazil. Food Chem. 102(1):288-294.
Henríquez-Hernández L.A., Carretón E., Camacho M., Montoya-Alonso J.A., Boada L.D., Valerón P.F., Falcón-Cordón Y., Falcón-Cordón S., Almeida-González M., Zumbado M. and Luzardo O.P. 2017. The heartworm (Dirofilariaimmitis) seems to be able to metabolize organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls: A case-control study in dogs, Sci. Total Environ. 575:1445-1452.
Khaniki G.R.J. 2007. Chemical contaminants in milk and public health concerns: a review. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 2(2):104-115.
Klincic D., Herceg Romanic S., Brcic Karaconji I., Matek Saric M., Grzunov Letinic J. and Brajenovic N. 2016. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae, Environ. Toxicol. Phar.45:74-79.
Le Faouder J., Bichon E., Brunschwig P., Landelle R., Andre F. and Le Bizec B. 2007. Transfer assessment of fipronil residues from feed to cow milk. Talanta 73(4):710-717.
Lei B., Zhang K., An J., Zhang X. and Yu Y. 2015. Human health risk assessment of multiple contaminants due to consumption of animal-based foods available in the markets of Shanghai, China, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22:4434-4446.
Lemos J., Sampedro M.C., de Ariño A., Ortiz A. and Barrio R.J. 2016. Risk assessment of exposure to pesticides through dietary intake of vegetables typical of the Mediterranean diet in the Basque Country, J. Food Compos. Anal. 49:35-41.
Li N., Kang Y., Pan W., Zeng L., Zhang Q. and Luo J. 2015. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China. Sci. Total Environ. 521-522:144-151.
Li Y.F. 1999. Global technical hexachlorocyclohexane usage and its contamination consequences in the environment: From 1948 to1997. Sci. Total Environ. 232:121-158.
Luzardo O.P., Almeida-González M., Henríquez-Hernández L.A., Zumbado M., Álvarez-León E.E. and Boada L.D. 2012. Polychloro-biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in conventional and organic brands of milk: Occurrence and dietary intake in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain). Chemosphere 88:307-315.
Martins J.G., Chávez A.A., Waliszewski S.M., Cruz A.C. and García Fabila M.M. 2013. Extraction and clean-up methods for organochlorine pesticides determination in milk, Review, Chemosphere 92(3):233-246.
Miclean M., Cadar O., Roman C., Tanaselia C., Stefanescu L. and Groza I.S. 2011. The influence of environmental contamination on heavy metals and organochlorine compounds levels in milk. Environ. Eng. Manag. J.10(1):37-42.
Order 23/2007. Order of the President of the National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority approving the sanitary veterinary and food safety normative on the establishment of the maximum admitted residue levels of pesticides in content or on foodstuffs of animal origin, No. 23 / 26.12.2007 of the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 138/26.12.2007.
Pérez J.J., León S.V., Gutiérrez R., López Y., Faure R. and Escobar A. 2012. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in milk from an agroindustrial zone of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico, Chemosphere 89(4):404-408.
Santos J.S., Schwanz T.G., Coelho A.N., Heck-Marques M.C., Mexia M.M., Emanuelli T. and Costabeber I. 2015. Estimated daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from dairy products in Brazil, Food Control 53:23-28.
Santos J.S., Xavier A.A.O., Ries E.F., Costabeber I. and Emanuelli T. 2006. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cheese from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Chemosphere 65:1544-1550.
Selim S., Warrad M., El Dowma E.F. and Aziz M.A. 2015. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of food borne bacterial contamination in some Egyptian food, Ital. J. Food Sci. 27(3):336-344.
Tsakiris I.N., Goumenou M., Tzatzarakis M.N., Alegakis A.K., Tsitsimpikou C., Ozcagli E., Vynias D. and Tsatsakis A.M. 2015. Risk assessment for children exposed to DDT residues in various milk types from the Greek market. Food Chem. Toxicol. 75:156-165.
Tsiplakou E., Anagnostopoulos C.J., Liapis K., Haroutounian S.A. and Zervas G. 2010. Pesticides residues in milks and feedstuff of farm animals drawn from Greece, Chemosphere 80(5):504-512.
US-EPA (United States, Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System IRIS) 2006. www.epa.govyirisygloss8.htm.
Witczak A., Pohorylo A. and Mituniewicz-Malek A., 2016. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goatmilk for consumers in Poland, Chemosphere 148:395-402.