Main Article Content
β-carotene, microencapsulation, spray drying, stability of β-carotene, principal components analysis (PCA)
The study analyzed effects of using a mixtures of three carriers: gum Arabic, OSA type modified starch and maltodextrin, used in different ratios on the properties of ?-carotene microencapsulated by spray drying. ?-carotene emulsions were prepared using high-pressure two-stage homogenization. Characteristics of emulsion properties and the features of the microcapsules. To determine the relation between the studied characteristics PCA were used.
It has been shown that the use of mixed media in equal proportions increases less the retention of the pigment during the storage of microcapsules than mixtures with different carriers ratios. The matrix which was the most effective in protecting the core, was made of a mixture of modified starch, gum Arabic and maltodextrin in the ratio of 1:3:2. It was also found that the larger content of gum Arabic in the mixture of carriers improved the protection against the degradation of ?-carotene than increasing content of OSA type modified starch.
Buffo R. and Reineccius G. 2000. Optimization of gum acacia/modified starch/maltodextrin blends for the spray drying of flovors. Perfumer & Flavorist 25: 45-54.
Cao-Hoang L., Fougère R. and Waché Y. 2011. Increase in stability and change in supramolecular structure of ?-carotene through encapsulation into polylactic acid nanoparticles. Food Chem. 124 (1): 42-49.
Cupia? D., Janiszewska E. and Witrowa-Rajchert D. 2010. Physical properties of spray dried protein hydrolysates. Acta Agrophysica, 15 (1): 55-64 (in Polish).
Desobry S.A., Netto F.M. and Labuza T.P. 1997. Comparison of spray-drying, drum- drying and freeze-drying for ?-carotene encapsulation and preservation. J. Food Sci. 62 (6): 1158-1162.
Desobry S.A., Netto F.M. and Labuza T.P. 1999. Influence of maltodextrin systems at an equivalent 25DE on encapsulated ?-carotene loss during storage. J. Food Process. Preserv. 23 (1): 39-55.
D?u?ewska E. and Leszczy?ski K. 2005. Effect of homogenization pressure and some hydrocolloids on beverage emulsion stability. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 14/55 (3): 293-298.
D?u?ewska E., Florowska A. and Jasiorska E. 2011. Effect of carrier type on stability of ?-carotene micro-encapsulated using spray-drying method. Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc 1 (74): 140-151 (in Polish).
Domian E. 2005. Physical properties of modelled food powders in agglomeration dimension. Zywnosc, Nauka, Technologia, Jakosc 4 (45): 87-97 (in Polish).
Domian E. and Bialik E. 2006. Selected physical properties of powdered apple juice. Acta Agrophysica 8: 803-814 (in Polish).
Druri M. and Pawlik A. 2001. Microencapsulation Technigues of Food Flavours. Przem. Spo?. 55 (3): 26 (in Polish).
Elizalde B., Herrera M. and Buera M. 2002. Retention of ?-Carotene encapsulated in a trehalose-based matrix as affected by water content and sugar crystallization. J. Food Sci. 67 (8): 3039-3045.
Ferreira J.E.M. and Rodriguez-Amaya D.B. 2008. Degradation of lycopene and ?-carotene in model systems and in lyophilized Guava during ambient storage: kinetics, structure, and matrix effects. J. Food Sci. 73 (8): C589-C594.
Gouin S. 2004. Microencapsulation: Industrial appraisal of existing technologies and trends. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15 (7-8): 330-347.
Hornero-Méndez D. and Mínguez-Mosquera M.I. 2007. Bioaccessibility of carotenes from carrots: effect of cooking and addition of oil. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg.Technol. 8 (3): 407-412.
Kanakdande D., Bhosale R. and Singhal R.S. 2007. Stability of cumin oleoresin microencapsulated in different combination of gum Arabic, maltodextrin and modified starch. Carbohydr. Polym. 67: 536-541.
Krishnan S., Bhosale R. and Singhal R.S. 2005. Microencapsulation of cardamom oleoresin: evaluation of blends of gum arabic, maltodextrin and a modified starch as wall materials. Carbohydr. Polym. 61 (1): 95-102.
Lewandowicz G., Prochaska K., Grajek W., Krzy?aniak W., Majchrzak A. and Ciapa T. 2005. Functional properties of maltodextrines in emulsion systems. Zywnosc, Nauka, Technologia, Jakosc 1 (42): 35-47 (in Polish).
Liang R., Huang Q., Ma J., Shoemaker C.F. and Zhong F. 2013. Effect of relative humidity on the store stability of spray-dried beta-carotene nanoemulsions. Food Hydrocoll. 33 (2): 225-233.
McNamee F.B., O’Riordan E.D. and O’Sullivsn, M. 2001. Effect of partial replacement of gum arabic with carbohydrates on its microencapsulation properties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (7): 3385-3388.
Meléndez-Martínez A.J., Britton G., Vicario I.M. and Heredia F.J. 2007. Relationship between the colour and the chemical structure of carotenoid pigments. Food Chem. 101: 1145-1150.
Mordi R.C., Walton J.C., Burton G.W., Hughes L., Ingold K.U., Lindsay D.A. and Moffatt D.J. 1993. Oxidative degradation of ?-carotene and ?-apo-8?-carotenal. Tetrahedron 49: 911–928.
Pesek C.A. and Warthesen J.J. 1990. Kinetic model for photoisomerization and concomitant photodegradation of beta-carotenes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38 (6): 1313-1315.
Polish Standard PN-A-75101-12:1990. Fruit and vegetable products. Preparation of samples and testing methods. Determination of carotenoids and ?-carotene content.
Przybysz M.A., D?u?ewska E. and Korsze? M. 2012. Effect of carrier type on storage stability of natural ?-carotene microencapsulated using spray drying. Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc 5 (8): 84-98 (in Polish).
Reineccius G.A. 1991. Carbohydrates for flavour encapsulation. Food Technol. 45 (3): 144-146.
Ribeiro H. S., Chu B.-S., Ichikawa S. and Nakajima M. 2008. Preparation of nanodispersions containing ?-carotene by solvent displacement method. Food Hydrocoll. 22 (1): 12-17.
Rodriguez-Amaya D.B. 2001. A guide to carotenoids analysis in foods. ILSI Press.Waszyngton.
Rodríguez-Huezo M.E., Pedroza-Islas R., Prado-Barragán L.A., Beristain C.I. and Vernon-Carter E.J. 2004. Microencapsulation by spray drying of multiple emulsions containing carotenoids. J. Food Sci. 69 (7): E351-E359.
Sánchez-Moreno C., Plaza L., De Ancos B. and Cano M.P. 2003. Vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and other carotenoids in high-pressurized orange juice during refrigerated storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (3): 647-653.
Szterk A. and Lewicki P.P. 2007. Study on ?-carotene stability on various solid food supports. Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc 5 (54): 173-185 (in Polish).
Yin L.-J., Chu B.-S., Kobayashi I. and Nakajima M. 2009. Performance of selected emulsifiers and their combinations in the preparation of ?-carotene nanodispersions. Food Hydrocoll. 23 (6): 1617-1622.