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citric acid ester, Casson model, Power law, PGPR, lecithin, reduced fat compound chocolate


The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing reduced fat dark chocolate models in the ball mill refiner and using some selected emulsifiers. The effects of selected emulsifiers including lecithin, polyglycerol polyricinoleate and citrem in two levels and two refining times on the characteristics such as moisture, particle size, hardness and rheological properties of the samples was examined. The results showed that citrem is the most effective emulsifier to reduce hardness and rheological parameters and using citrem as a part of formulation in the production of reduced fat dark chocolate models can solve many technological problems.

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