Main Article Content
African catfish, meat and fillets, chemical composition, energy and TBARS value, pH, color
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the gender of African catfish on the chemical composition and of selected physicochemical properties. The experimental material included fish with body weight of ca. 1 kg, aged <1 year, cultured in the intensive system (pond culture). Acidity (pH24) was determined 24 h post mortem in fillets and the color of the external and internal surface of fillets was characterized based on L*, a*, b*, C* and hº values. In the comminution of meat of catfish were analyzed for the proximate chemical composition, energy and TBARS value. Meat of both sexes was characterized by high contents of total protein and fat, by low calorific value and had appropriate acidity. The internal and external surface of fillets of the male fish was darker and characterized by greater contribution of red (a*) and lesser of yellow (b*) color.
Amisah S., Oteng M. A. and Ofori J. K. 2009. Growth performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed varying inclusion levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 13(1): 21-26.
AOAC. 2005. “Official Methods of Analysis” 18th ed. As¬sociation of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
CIE. 1978. Recommendations on uniform color spaces-color difference equations. Psychometric Color Terms. Supplement No. 2 to CIE publication No. 15 (E-1.3.1), 1971/(TC-1-3),
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, France.
EC Directive 2009. Council Regulation No 1099/2009 of 24 September 2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing. Official Journal of the European Union L303. 1-30.
Goda A. M., El-Haroun E. R. and Kabir Chowdhury M. A. 2007. Effect of totally or partially replacing fish meal by alternative protein sources on growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) reared in concrete tanks. Aquacult. Res. 38: 279-87.
Hunt M. C., Acton J. C., Benedict R. C., Calkins C. R., Cornforth D. P., Jeremiah L. E., Olson D. G., Salm C. P., Savell J. W. and Shivas S. D. 1991. Guidelines for meat color evaluation. Appendix to Proc. Recip. Meat Conf. 1991, 44th, Kansas State University, USA, June 9-12. p. 1-17.
Jankowska B., Zakes Z., Zmijewski T., Ulikowski D. and Kowalska A. 2007. Slaughter value and flesh characteristics of European catfish (Silurus glanis) fed natural and formulated feed under different rearing conditions. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224: 453-459.
Jeszka J. 2010. Energy. In “Human nutrition. Basics of food science”. J. Gawecki (Ed.), (PL), p. 133-146. PWN, Warszawa.
Kamkar A., Jebelli Javan A., Nemati G., Falahpour F. and Partovi R. 2014. Effect of Mentha pulegium water extract dipping on quality and shelf life silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) during superchilled storage. Iran. J. Fish. Sci. 13(2): 341-353.
Kapelinski J. 2003. African catfish. Mag. Przem. Ryb. (PL). 6: 13-17.
Klasa B. and Trzebiatowski R. 1992. Technological performance and chemical composition of meat of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Kom. Ryb. (PL). 4: 5-8.
Luczynska J., Tonska E. and Borejszo Z. 2011. Content of macro- and microelements, and fatty acids in muscles of salmon (Salmo Salar L.), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Walb.), and carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.). Food. Science. Technology. Quality. (PL). 3(76): 162-172.
Marx H., Brunner B., Wenzierl W., Hoffmann R. and Stolle A. 1997. Methods of stunning freshwater fish: impact on meet quality and aspects of animal welfare. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. A. 204A: 282-286.
Merkin G. V., Roth B., Gjerstad C., Dahl-Paulsen E. and Northvedt R. 2010. Effect of pre-slaughter procedures on stress responses and some quality parameters in seafarmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 309: 231-235.
PN-A 1999 Terminology. PN-A Standard 86770:1999. Fish and fish products. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, Poland.
PN-A 2002. Determination of nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method and expressing as protein. PN-A Standard 4018:1975/Az3 2002. Agricultural Food Products. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, Poland.
PN-ISO 2000a. Determination of moisture content (reference method). PN-ISO Standard 1442:2000. Meat and meat products. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, Poland.
PN-ISO 2000b. Determination of free fat content. PN-ISO Standard 1444:2000. Meat and meat products. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, Poland.
PN-ISO 2000c. Determination of total ash. PN-ISO Standard 936:2000. Meat and meat products. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, Poland.
PN-ISO 2002. pH measurement. Relative method. PN-ISO Standard 2917:2001/Ap1 2002. Meat and meat products. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, Poland.
Polak-Juszczak L. 2007. Chemical characteristics of fishes new to the Polish market. Acta Sci. Pol., Piscaria. 6(2): 23-32.
Puchala R. and Pilarczyk M. 2007. Nutrition effect on chemical composition of carp meat. In?. Rol. (PL). 5(93): 363-368.
Rak L. and Morzyk K. 2002. Chemical examination of meat. (PL). AR, Wroclaw, Poland.
Rosa R., Bandarra N. M. and Nunes L. M. 2007. Nutritional quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822): a positive criterion for the future development of the European production of Siluroidei. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 42: 342-351.
Skalecki P., Litwinczuk A., Florek M., Kedzierska-Matysek M. and Domaradzki P. 2008. Evaluation of usefulness value and meat quality of two species of marine fish. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ. (PL). 4(4): 169-173.
Skalecki P., Florek M., Litwinczuk A., Staszowska A. and Kaliniak A. 2013. The nutritional value and chemical composition of muscle tissue of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb.) obtained from fish farms in the Lublin region. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ. (PL). 9(2): 57-62.
Skibniewska K. A., Zakrzewski J., Siemianowska E., Warechowska M. and Wojtkowiak K. 2012. The impact of technology on the chemical composition of muscle tissue of rainbow trout. Ch. 3. In “Assessment tools used in Poland rainbow trout rearing technology. (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) in the light of their own studies”. J. Szarek, K. A. Skibniewska, J. Zakrzewski and J. Guziur (Ed.)., p. 22-27. ElSet (PL). Olsztyn, Poland.
StatSoft, Inc. 2011. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10.0. Tulsa, OK, USA. www.stalsoft.com.
Vitule J. R. S., Umbria S. C. and Aranha J. M. R. 2006. Introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) into Southern Brazil. Biol. Invasions. 8: 677-681.
Wedekind H. 1995. Dietary influences on product quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 11(3-4): 347-353.
Yanar Y. 2007. Quality changes of hot smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during refrigerated storage. J. Muscle Foods. 18(4): 391-400.