Main Article Content

M.C. Messia
T. Candigliota
E. De Arcangelis
E. Marconi


Arabinoxylans, Barley, beta-glucans, Emmer, Spelt, Wheat


Arabinoxylans (AX) and ?-glucans are the major source of soluble dietary fibre in cereals and have a significant role as functional/bioactive ingredients implicated in lowering plasma cholesterol, postprandial blood glucose and improving lipid metabolism. In this work, the variation in the content and solubility of AX and ?-glucans in different cereal species and varieties were studied. Different methods (phloroglucinol, orcinol-HCl, HPAEC-PAD) for AX analysis were tested. The results confirmed the variability in contents of both polymers (AX and ?-glucans) in cereal species and varieties as well as providing additional information useful for characterization.
Abstract 939 | PDF Downloads 595


Abdel-Aal E.S.M. and Hucl P. 2005. Hulles barley for food and feed. In “Specialty grains for food and feed” E.S.M. Abdel-Aal, and P. Hucl (Ed.), p.171. AACC, St. Paul, MN (USA).

Åman P. and Graham H. 1987. Analysis of total and insoluble mixed-linked (1-3), (1-4)-?-D-glucans in barley and oats. J. Agr. Food Chem. 3: 704.

Andersson A.A.M., Lampi A.M., Nyström L., Piironen, V., Li L., Ward J.L., Gebruers K., Courtin C.M., Delcour J.A., Boros D., Fra? A., Dykowska W., Rakszegi M., Bed? Z., Shewry P.R. and Åman P. 2008. Phytochemical and dietary fiber components in barley varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56: 9767.

Berger M. and Ducroo, P. 2005. Arabinoxilani e arabinoxilanasi nelle farine. Tecnica Molitoria, september, 907.

Brouns F., Hemery Y., Pricve R. and Anson N.M. 2012. Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects and potential food use. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 52: 553.

Cui W., Wood P.J., Blackwell B. and Nikiforuk J. 2000. Physicochemical properties and structural characterization by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy of wheat ?-D-glucan comparison with other cereal ?-glucans. Carbohydr. Polym. 41: 249.

Douglas S.G. 1981. A rapid method for the determination of pentosans in wheat flour. Food Chem. 7: 139.

Fincher G.B. and Stone B.A. 1986. Cell walls and their components in cereal grain technology. In “Advances in cereal science and technology”. Y. Pomeranz (Ed.), p. 207. American Association of Cereal Chemists Inc., St Paul.

Finnie S., Bettge A. and Morris, C. 2006. Influence of cultivar and environment on water soluble and water insoluble arabinoxylans in soft wheat. Cereal Chem. 83: 617.

Garcia A.L., Otto B., Reich S.C., Weickert M.O., Steiniger J., Machowetz A., Rudovich N.N., Mohling M., Katz N., Speth M., Meuser F., Doerfer J., Zunft H.J.F., Pfeiffer A.H.F. and Koebnick C. 2007. Arabinoxylan consumption decreases postprandial serum glucose, serum insulin and plasma total ghrelin response in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61: 334.

Garcia A.L., Steiniger J., Reich S.C., Weickert M.O., Harsch I., Machowetz A., Mohlig M., Spranger J., Rudovich N.N., Meuser F., Doerfer J., Katz N., Speth M., Zunft H.J.F., Pfeiffer, A.H.F. and Koebnick C. 2006. Arabinoxylan fiber consumption improved glucose metabolism, but did not affect serum adipokines in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Horm. Metab. Res., 38: 761.

Gebruers K., Dornez E., Boros D., Fras A., Dynkowska W., Bedo Z., Rakszegi M., Delcour J.A. and Courtin C.M. 2008. Variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56: 9740.

Hashimoto S., Shogren M. and Pomeranz Y., 1987. Cereal pentosans: their estimation and significance. I. Pentosans in wheat and milled wheat products. Cereal Chem. 64 (1): 30.

Henry R.J. 1987. Pentosan and (1?3), (1?4)-?-glucan concentrations in endosperm and wholegrain of wheat, barley, oats and rye. J. Cereal Sci. 6: 253.

ICC. 1995. International Association for Cereal Science and Technology. ICC Standards, Method 104/1, Method109/1, Method 129. ICC, Vienna.

Izydorczyk M.S. and Biliaderis C.G. 1995. Cereal arabinoxylans: advances in structure and physicochemical properties. Carbohydr. Polym. 28: 33.

Izydorczyk M.S. and Dexter J.E. 2008. Barley ?-glucans and arabinoxylans: Molecular structure, physicochemical properties, and uses in food products—A review. Food Res. Int. 41: 850.

Lazaridou A. and Biliaderis C.G. 2007. Molecular aspects of cereal ?-glucan functionality: physical properties, technological applications and physiological effects. J. Cereal Sci. 46: 101.

Lu Z.X., Walker K.Z., Muir J.G., Mascara T. and O’Dea K. 2000. Arabinoxylan fiber, a by-product of wheat flour processing, reduces the postprandial glucose response in normoglycemic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71: 1123.

Mäkeläinen H., Anttila H., Sihvonen J., Hietanen R.M., Tahvonen R., Salminen E., Mikola M. and Sontag-Strohm T. 2007. The effect of ?-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61: 779.

Marconi E., Graziano M. and Cubadda R. 2000. Composition and utilization of barley pearling by-products for making functional pastas riche in dietary fiber and ?-glucans, Cereal Chem. 77: 133.

Maslen S., Goubet F., Adam A., Dupree P. and Stephens E. 2007. Structure elucidation of arabinoxylan isomers by normal phase HPLCMALDI TOF/TOFMS/MS. Carbohyd. Res. 342: 724.

Messia M.C., Reale A., Maiuro L., Candigliota T., Sorrentino E. and Marconi E. 2016. Effects of pre-fermented wheat bran on dough and bread Characteristics. J. Cereal Sci., 69: 138.

Newman R.K. and McGuire C.F. 1985. Nutritional quality of barley. In “Barley”. D. C .Rasmusson (Ed.), p. 403. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Newman R.K. and Newman C.W. 2008. Barley for Food and Health: Science, Technology, and Products, p. 56. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Papageorgeiou M., Lakhdara N., Lazaridou A., Biliaderis C.G. and Izydorczyk M.S. 2005. Water extractable (1?3, 1?4) –[beta]-D-glucans from barley and oats: An intervarietal study on their structural features and rheological behavior. J. Cereal Sci. 42: 213.

Revanappa S.B., Bhagwat S.G. and Salimath P.V. 2007. Studies on pentosans in Indian wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in relation to chapatti making quality. Food Chem. 104: 896.

Saulnier L., Guillon F., Sado P.E. and Rouau X. 2007b. Plant cell wall polysaccharides in storage organs: xylans (food applications). In “Comprehensive glycoscience”. J. Kamerling, G.J. Boons, Y. Lee, T.A. Suzuki, N. Taniguchi and A.G. J. Voragen (Ed.), Vol. 2, p. 653, Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Saulnier L., Sado P.E., Branlard G., Charmet and G. and Guillon F. 2007a. Wheat arabinoxylans: exploiting variation in amount and composition to develop enhanced varieties. J. Cereal Sci. 46: 261.

Shelat K.J., Vilaplana F., Nicholson T.M., Gidley M.J. and Gilbert R.G. 2011. Diffusion and rheology characteristics of barley mixed linkage ?-glucan and possible implications for digestion. Carbohyd. Polym. 86: 1732.

Skendi A., Biliaderis C.G., Izydorcyk M.S., Zervou M. and Zoumpoulakis P. 2011. Structural variation and rheological properties of water-extractable arabinoxylans from six Greek wheat cultivars. Food Chem. 126: 526-536.

Skendi A., Biliaderis C.G., Lazaridou A. and Izydorczyk M.S. 2003. Structure and rheological properties of water soluble ?-glucans from oat cultivars of Avena sativa and Avena byzantine. J. Cereal Sci. 38: 15.

Sosulski F., Krygier K. and Hogge L. 1982. Free esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic-acids III. Composition of phenolic acids in cereal and potato flours. J. Agr. Food Chem. 30(2): 337.

Verardo V., Gomez-Caravaca A.M., Messia M.C., Marconi E. and Caboni M.F. 2011a. Development of functional spaghetti enriched in bioactive compounds using barley coarse fraction obtained by air classification. J. Agr. Food Chem. 59: 9127.

Verardo V., Riciputi Y., Messia M.C., Vallicelli M., Falasca L., Marconi E. and Caboni M.F. 2011b. Dietary fiber and flavan-3-ols in shortbread biscuits enriched with barley flours co-products. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 62(3): 262.

Vitaglione P., Barone Lumaga R., Montagnese C., Messia M.C., Marconi E. and Scalfi L. 2010. Satiating Effect of a Barley Beta-Glucan-Enriched Snack. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 29(2): 113.

Ward J.L, Poutanen K., Gebruers K, Piironen V., Lampi A.M., Nystrom L., Andersson A.A.M., Åman P., Boros D., Rakszegi M., Bedo Z. and Shewry P.R. 2008. The HEALTHGRAIN cereal diversity screen: concept, results, and prospects. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56(21): 9699.

Wood P. 2007. Cereal ?-glucans in diet and health. J. Cereal Sci. 46: 230.

Wood P.J., Weisz J., Beer M.U., Newman C.W. and Newman R.K. 2003. Structure of (1,3)(1,4)-?-glucan in waxy and non-waxy barley. Cereal Chem. 80(3): 329.