Main Article Content

Vera Lavelli
Luisa Torri
Giuseppe Zeppa
Luca Fiori
Giorgia Spigno


by-products, dietary fibre, grape phenolics, grape seed oil, winemaking


Winemaking by-products are potential resources for second-generation biorefineries, i.e., biorefineries fed with biowaste to produce added-value products, particularly for the food sector. In fact, winemaking by-products are outstanding sources of oil, phenolic compounds and dietary fibre and possess numerous health benefits and multifunctional characteristics, such as antioxidant, colouring, antimicrobial and texturizing properties. The present review highlights promising developments for the conversion of winemaking by-products into novel food ingredients, as well as their use in innovative foods, focusing on the type of recovered ingredients, dosage, formulation and processing. In addition, the primary benefits of winemaking by-products to new foods are described.

Abstract 1321 | PDF Downloads 556


Ahn J., Grun I.U. and Mustapha A. 2007. Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Food Microbiol. 24: 7.

Amendola D., De Faveri D.M. and Spigno G. 2010. Grape marc phenolics: extraction kinetics, quality and stability of extracts. J. Food Eng. 97: 384.

Axten L.G., Wohlers M.W. and Wegrzyn T. 2008. Using phytochemicals to enhance health benefits of milk: Impact of polyphenols on flavor profile. J. Food Sci. 73: H122.

Battista F., Tomasi D., Porro D., Caicci F., Giacosa S. and Rolle L. 2015. Winegrape berry skin thickness determination: comparison between histological observation and texture analysis determination. Ital. J. Food Sci. 27: 136.

Beverige T.H.J., Girard B., Kopp T. and Drover J.C.G. 2005. Yield and composition of grape seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 53: 1799.

Bi, N. and Rui, D. 2014. Extracting anthocyanin from grape seed, comprises crushing the grape seed, adding modifying agent, soaking grape seed particle in an organic solvent, adding water to the degreased grape seed, and performing supercritical extraction. Patent number: CN103351370-A. Patent Assignee: Jurong Chuncheng Niansheng-Grapery.

Bordiga M. (Ed.) 2015. “Valorization of wine making by-products” CRC Press.

Cappa C., Lavelli V. and Mariotti M. 2015. Fruit candies enriched with grape skin powders: physicochemical properties. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 62: 569.

Carpenter R., O’Grady M.N., O’Callaghan Y.C., O’Brien N.M. and Kerry, J.P. 2007. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of grape seed and bearberry extracts in raw and cooked pork. Meat Sci. 76: 604.

Chouchouli V., Kalogeropoulos N., Konteles S.J., Karvela E., Makris D.P. and Karathanos V.T. 2013. Fortification of yoghurts with grape (Vitisvinifera) seed extracts. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 53: 522.

Corrales M., Fernandez A., Vizoso Pinto M.G., Butz P., Franz C.M.A.P., Schuele E. and Tauscher B. 2010. Characterization of phenolic content, in vitro biological activity, and pesticide loads of extracts from white grape skins from organic and conventional cultivars. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48: 3476.

Crews C., Hough P., Godward J., Brereton P., Lees M., Guiet S. and Winkelmann W. 2006. Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic grape seed oils of different origin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 6261.

Davidov-Pardo G., Moreno M., Arozarena I., Marín-Arroyo M.R., Bleibaum R.N. and Bruhn C.M. 2012. Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies. J. Food Sci. 77: S430.

Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain directives.

Drewnowski A. and Gomez-Carneros C. 2000. Bitter taste, phytonutrients and the consumer: a review. Am. J Clin. Nutr. 72: 1424.

Duba S.K. and Fiori L. 2015a. Extraction of bioactives from food processing residues using techniques performed at high pressure. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 5: 14.

Duba S.K. and Fiori L. 2015b. Supercritical CO2 extraction of grape seed oil: Effect of process parameters on the extraction kinetics. J. Supercrit. Fluids 98: 33.

Duba S.K. and Fiori L. 2016. Solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO2: Experiments and modeling. J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 100: 44.

Felix da Silva D., Matumoto-Pintro P.T., Bazinet L., Couillard C. and Britten M. 2015. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 98: 1552.

Fernandez J., Perej-Alvarez J.A. and Fernandez–Lopez J.A. 1997. Thiobarbituric acid test for monitoring lipid oxidation in meat. Food Chem. 59: 345.

Fernandes L., Casal S., Cruz R., Pereira J.A. and Ramalhosa E. 2013. Seed oils of ten traditional Portuguese grape varieties with interesting chemicals and antioxidant properties. Food Res. Int. 50: 161.

Fiori L. 2010. Supercritical extraction of grape seed oil at industrial-scale: Plant and process design, modeling, economic feasibility. Chem. Eng. Proc. 49: 866.

Fiori L., Lavelli V., Duba K.S., Sri Harsha P.S.C., Mohamed H. Ben and Guella G. 2014. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil from seeds of six grape cultivars: modeling of mass transfer kinetics and evaluation of lipid profiles and tocol contents. J. Supercrit. Fluids 94: 71.

Freitas L.D.S, Dariva C., Jacques R.A. and Caramao E.B. 2013. Effect of experimental parameters in the pressurized liquid extraction of Brazilian grape seed oil. Sep. Purif. Technol. 116: 313.

Galanakis C.M. (Ed.) 2015 “Food Waste Recovery: Processing Technologies and Industrial Techniques.” Elsevier Inc., London, U.K.

Han J., Britten M., St-Gelais D., Champagne C. P., Fustier, P. Salmieri, S. and Lacroix M. 2011a. Effect of polyphenolic ingredients on physical characteristics of cheese. Food Res. Int. 44: 494.

Han J., Britten M., St-Gelais D., Champagne C.P., Fustier P., Salmieri S., and Lacroix M. 2011b.. Polyphenolic compounds as functional ingredients in cheese. Food Chem. 124: 1589.

Hanganu A., Toda?c? M.-C., Chira N.A., Maganu M. and Ro?ca S. 2012. The compositional characterization of Romanian grape seed oils using spectroscopic methods. Food Chem. 134: 2453.

Hoye C. and Ross C.F. 2011. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance, and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour. J. Food Sci. 76: S428.

Kammerer D., Claus A., Carle R. and Schieber A. 2004. Polyphenol screening of pomace from red and white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) by HPLC–DAD–MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 4360.

Kulkarni S., De Santos F.A., Kattamuri S., Rossi S.J. and Brewer M.S. 2011. Effect of grape seed extract on oxidative, color and sensory stability of a pre-cooked, frozen, re-heated beef sausage model system. Meat Sci. 88: 139.

Laureati M., Jabes D., Russo V. and Pagliarini E. 2013. Sustainability and organic production: how information influences consumer’s expectation and preference for yogurt. Food Qual. Pref. 30: 1.

Laureati M., Gaeta D. and Pagliarini E. 2014. Qualitative and sensory evaluation of Sangiovese red wine obtained from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Ital. J. Food Sci. 26: 355.

Lavelli V., Sri Harsha P.S.C., Torri L. and Zeppa G. 2014. Use of winemaking by-products as an ingredient for tomato puree: The effect of particle size on product quality. Food Chem. 152: 162.

Lavelli V., Sri Harsha P.S.C. and Fiori L. 2015a. Screening grape seeds recovered from winemaking byproducts as sources of reducing agents and mammalian ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitors. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 50: 1182.

Lavelli V., Sri Harsha, P.S.C., Mariotti, M., Marinoni, L. and Cabassi G. 2015b. Tuning physical properties of tomato puree by fortification with grape skin antioxidant dietary fibre. Food Bioprocess Technol. 8:1668.

Lavelli V., Sri Harsha P.S.C., Ferranti P., Scarafoni A. and Iametti S. 2016a. Grape skin phenolics as inhibitors of mammalian ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase – Effect of food matrix and processing on efficacy. Food Func. 7: 1655.

Lavelli V., Sri Harsha P.S.C. and Spigno G. 2016b. Modelling the stability of maltodextrin-encapsulated grape skin phenolics used as a new ingredient in apple puree. Food Chem. 209: 323.

Maier T., Fromm M., Schieber A., Kammerer D.R. and Carle R. 2009a. Process and storage stability of anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenolics in pectin and gelatin gels enriched with grape pomace extracts. Eur. Food Res.Technol. 229: 949.

Maier T., Schieber A., Kammerer D.R. and Carle R. 2009b. Residues of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed oil production as a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Food Chem. 112: 551.

Marchiani R., Bertolino M., Ghirardello D., McSweeney P.L.H. and Zeppa G. 2015. Physicochemical and nutritional qualities of grape pomace powder-fortified semi-hard cheeses. J. Food Sci. Technol. 53: 1585.

Marchiani R., Bertolino M., Belviso S., Giordano M., Ghirardello D., Torri L., Piochi M. and Zeppa G. 2016. Yogurt enrichment with grape pomace: effect of grape cultivar on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. J. Food Qual. 39:77.

Marinelli V., Padalino L., Nardiello D., Del Nobile M.A. and Conte A. 2015. New approach to enrich pasta with polyphenols from grape marc. J. Chem. 2015: 1.

Mildner-Szkudlarz S., Zawirska-Wojtasiak R., Szwengiel A. and Pacy?ski M. 2011. Use of grape by-product as a source of dietary fibre and phenolic compounds in sourdough mixed rye bread. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 1485.

Mildner-Szkudlarz S., Bajerska J., Zawirska-Wojtasiak R. and Górecka D. 2013. White grape pomace as a source of dietary fibre and polyphenols and its effect on physical and nutraceutical characteristics of wheat biscuits. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93: 389.

Nissen L.R., Månsson L., Bertelsen G., Huynh-Ba T. and Skibsted L.H. 2000. Protection of dehydrated chicken meat by natural antioxidants as evaluated by electron spin resonance spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 5548.

Nissen L.R., Byrne D. V., Bertelsen G. and Skibsted L.H. 2004. The antioxidative activity of plant extracts in cooked pork patties as evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling and chemical analysis. Meat Sci. 68: 485.

O’Connell J.E. and Fox P.F. 2001. Significance and applications of phenolic compounds in the production and quality of milk and dairy products: a review. Int. Dairy J. 11:103.

Otles, S., Despoudi, S., Bucatariu, C., and Kartal, C. 2015. Food waste management, valorization, and sustainability in the food industry. In: “Food Waste Recovery -Processing Technologies and Industrial Techniques”. C. M. Galanakis (Ed), p. 3. Academic Press, Elsevier, London.

Ozen B.O., Eren M., Pala A., Ozmen I. and Soyer A. 2011. Effect of plant extracts on lipid oxidation during frozen storage of minced fish muscle. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 724.

Paini M., Casazza A.A., Aliakbarian B., Perego P., Binello A. and Cravotto G. 2016. Influence of ethanol/water ratio in ultrasound and high-pressure/high-temperature phenolic compound extraction from agri-food waste. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51: 349.

Pasqualone A., Bianco A.M. and Paradiso V.M. 2013. Production trials to improve the nutritional quality of biscuits and to enrich them with natural anthocyanins. CyTA - J. Food 11: 301.

Pasqualone A., Bianco A.M., Paradiso V.M., Summo C., Gambacorta G. and Caponio F. 2014. Physico-chemical, sensory and volatile profiles of biscuits enriched with grape marc extract. Food Res. Int. 65: 385.

Pazos M., Gallardo J.M., Torres J.L. and Medina I. 2005. Activity of grape polyphenols as inhibitors of the oxidation of fish lipids and frozen fish muscle. Food Chem. 92: 547.

Pedroza M.A., Amendola D., Maggi L., Zalacain A., De Faveri D.M. and Spigno G. 2015. Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from dried waste grape skins. Int. J. Food Eng. 11: 359.

Peng X., Ma J., Cheng K.-W., Jiang Y., Chen F. and Wang M. 2010. The effects of grape seed extract fortification on the antioxidant activity and quality attributes of bread. Food Chem. 119: 49.

Ribeiro B., Cardoso C., Silva H.A., Serrano C., Ramos C., Santos P.C. Santos P. C. and Mendes R. 2013. Effect of grape dietary fibre on the storage stability of innovative functional seafood products made from farmed meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48: 10.

Rojas M.C. and Brewer M.S. 2007. Effect of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of cooked, refrigerated beef and pork. J. Food Sci. 72: 282.

Sagdic O., Ozturk I., Ozkan G. Yetim H.,EkiciL. and Yilmaz M. T. 2011. RP-HPLC–DAD analysis of phenolic compounds in pomace extracts from five grape cultivars: Evaluation of their antioxidant, antiradical and antifungal activities in orange and apple juices. Food Chem. 126: 1749.

Sanchez-Alonso I., Jimenez-Escrig A., Saura-Calixto F. and Borderias A.J. 2008. Antioxidant protection of white grape pomace on restructured fish products during frozen storage. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 41: 42.

Sant’Anna V., Christiano F.D.P., Marczak L.D.F., Tessaro I.C. and Thys R.C.S. 2014. The effect of the incorporation of grape marc powder in fettuccini pasta properties. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 58: 497.

Saura-Calixto F. 1998. Antioxidant dietary fiber product: a new concept and a potential food ingredient. J Agric. Food Chem. 46:4303.

Sáyago-Ayerdi S.G., Brenes A. and Goñi I. 2009. Effect of grape antioxidant dietary fiber on the lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken hamburgers. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 42: 971.

Scoma A., Rebecchi S., Bertin L. and Fava F. 2016. High impact biowastes from South European agro industries as feedstock for second-generation biorefineries. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 36: 175.

Selani M.M., Contreras-Castillo C.J., Shirahigue L.D., Gallo C.R., Plata-Oviedo M. and Montes-Villanueva N.D. 2011. Wine industry residues extracts as natural antioxidants in raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage. Meat Sci. 88: 397.

Shah N.P., Ding W.K., Fallourd M.J., and Leyer G. 2010. Improving the stability of probiotic bacteria in model fruit juices using vitamins and antioxidants. J. Food Sci. 75: M278.

Siró I., Kápolna E., Kápolna B., and Lugasi A. 2008. Functional food. Product development, marketing and
consumer acceptance - A review. Appetite 51: 456.

Solfrizzo M., Piemontese L., Gambacorta L., Zivoli R. and Longobardi F. 2012. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63: 3614.

Soto M.L., Moure A., Domínguez H. and Parajó J.C. 2011. Recovery, concentration and purification of phenolic compounds by adsorption: A review. J. Food Eng. 105: 1.

Spigno G., Donsì F., Amendola D., Sessa M., Ferrari G. and De Faveri D.M. 2013. Nanoencapsulation systems to improve solubility and antioxidant efficiency of a grape marc extract into hazelnut paste. J. Food Eng. 114: 207.

Spigno G. 2015. Recupero ed utilizzazione dei sottoprodotti enologici. In: “La nuova viticoltura – Innovazioni tecniche per modelli produttivi efficienti e sostenibili”. Palliotti, A., Poni, S., and Silvestroni, O. (Eds.), p 393. Edagricole, Milano.

Spigno G., Amendola D., Dahmoune F. and Jauregi P. 2015. Colloidal gas aphrons based separation process for the purification and fractionation of natural phenolic extracts. Food Bioproducts Process. 94: 434.

Sri Harsha P.S.C., Gardana C., Simonetti, P., Spigno G. and Lavelli V. 2013. Characterization of phenolics, in vitro reducing capacity and anti-glycation activity of red grape skins recovered from winemaking by-products. Bioresource Technol. 140: 263.

Sri Harsha P.S.C., Lavelli V. and Scarafoni A. 2014. Protective ability of phenolics from white grape vinification by-products against structural damage of bovine serum albumin induced by glycation. Food Chem. 156: 220.

Teixeira A., Baenas N., Dominguez-Perles R., Barros A., Rosa E., Moreno D.A. and Garcia-Viguera C. 2014. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: A review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15: 15638.

Torri L., Piochi M., Lavelli V. and Monteleone E. 2015. Descriptive sensory analysis and consumers’ preference for dietary fibre- and polyphenol-enriched tomato purees obtained using winery by-products. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 62: 294.

Torri L., Piochi M., Marchiani R., Zeppa G., Dinnella C. and Monteleone E. 2016. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders. J. Dairy Sci. 99: 194.

Travaglia F., Bordiga M., Locatelli M., Coïsson J.D. and Arlorio M. 2011. Polymeric proanthocyanidins in skins and seeds of 37 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars: A methodological comparative study. J. Food Sci. 76: C742.

Tseng A. and Zhao Y. 2013. Wine grape pomace as antioxidant dietary fibre for enhancing nutritional value and improving storability of yogurt and salad dressing. Food Chem. 138: 356.

Tuorila H. 2007. Sensory perception as a basis for food acceptance and consumption. In “Consumer-led food product development” H.J.H. Mac Fie (Ed.), p. 34. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing

Tzima K., Kallithraka S., Kotseridis Y. and Makris D.P. 2015. A comparative evaluation of aqueous natural organic acid media for the efficient recovery of flavonoids from red grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace. Waste Biomass Valorization 6: 391.

Verbeke W. 2006. Functional foods: Consumer willingness to compromise on taste for health? Food Qual. Prefer. 17: 126.

Vidal S., Francis L., Noble A., Kwiatkowski M., Cheynier V. and Waters E. 2004. Taste and mouth-feel properties of different types of tannin-like polyphenolic compounds and anthocyanins in wine. Anal. Chim. Acta 513: 57.

Walker R., Tseng A., Cavender G., Ross A. and Zhao Y. 2014. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory qualities of wine grape pomace fortified baked goods. J. Food Sci. 79: S1811.

Yu J. and Ahmedna M. 2013. Functional components of grape pomace: Their composition, biological properties and potential applications. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48: 221.

Zagklis, D.P. and Paraskeva C.A. 2015. Purification of grape marc phenolic compounds through solvent extraction, membrane filtration and resin adsorption/desorption. Sep. Purif. Technol. 156: 328.?