Vending machine foods: evaluation of nutritional composition

Main Article Content

António Raposo
Conrado Carrascosa
Esteban Pérez
Ana Tavares
Esther Sanjuán
Pedro Saavedra
Rafael Millán

Keywords

consumer, food choices, nutritional assessment, vending machines

Abstract

The nutritional quality of vending machine foods may be a factor that contributes to significantly increase obesity and associated diseases, and the vending industry is significantly growing worldwide. This study aims to evaluate the nutritional composition of vending machine foods and to compare it with the consumption of the Gran Canaria population.

Food products from 74 snack and 71 refrigerated vending machines located in Las Palmas (Gran Canaria), and on university campuses, were nutritionally assessed. The percentages of sales per food type were accessed during a 12 month-period to verify user preferences. Significant differences (p <0.05) were found in the content of nutrients compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test with all the food groups. Sandwiches (wholemeal and white bread) had the lowest energy levels, while croissants had the highest. We highlight the increased sodium content in baguettes compared to the other foods.

The findings suggest that vending machine foods contain more fat/saturated fat, calories and sodium than recommended. Further studies on the nutritional assessment of vending machine foods, governments’ awareness and policies that promote the intake of healthy foods are essential to increase the amount of foods with an appropriate nutritional profile according to recommendations in vending machines.

Abstract 1358 | PDF Downloads 626

References

Byrd-Bredbenner, C., Johnson, M., Quick, V.M., Walsh, J., Greene, G.W., Hoerr, S., Colby, S.M., Kattelmann, K.K., Phillips, B.W., Kidd, T., Horacek, T.M. (2012). Sweet and salty. An assessment of the snacks and beverages sold in vending machines on US post-secondary institution campuses, Appetite; 58(3):1143-51.

Cavaliere, A., De Marchi, E., Banterle, A. (2014). Healthy-unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an association? An analysis through a consumer survey, Appetite; 83: 135-143.

Caruso, M.L., Klein, E.G., Kaye, G. (2014). Campus-Based Snack Food Vending Consumption, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 46(5), 401-405.

Cheney, H.G. (1974). Survey of foods and beverages in vending machines at dental schools, Journal of Dental Education, 38, 392.

DIAL (Programa DIAL – Programa de uso general y profesional para valoración de Dietas y cálculos de Alimentación). (2011). http://www.seh-lelha.org/busalimento.aspx. Retrieved on June 2, 2014.

Ebenegger, V., Marques-Vidal, P., Barral, J., Kriembel, S., Puder, J. J., Nydegger, A. (2010). Eating habits of preschool children with high migrant status in Switzerland according to a new food frequency questionnaire, Nutrition Research, 30: 104-109.

Ezell, J.M., Skinner, J.D., Penfield, M. P. (1985). Appalachian adolescents' snack patterns: morning, afternoon and evening snacks, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 85, 1450.

Farley, T.A., Baker, E.T., Futrell, L., Rice, J.C. (2010). The ubiquity of energy-dense snack foods: a national multicity study, American Journal of Public Health, 100(2):306-11.

FDA (Food and Drug Administration). (2013). http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm064928.htm. Retrieved on February 25, 2015.

Finkelstein, D.M., Hill, E.L., Whitaker, R.C. (2008). School food environments and policies in US public schools, Pediatrics, 122(1): 251-259.

French, S. A., Jeffery, R.W., Story, M., Breitlow, K.K., Baxter, J.S., Hannan, P., Snyder, M.P. (2001). Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS study, American Journal of Public Health, 91: 112–117.

French, S., Story, M., Fulkerson, J., & Gerlach, A. (2003). Food environment in secondary schools. A la carte, vending machines and food policies and practices, American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1161–1167.

French, S.A, Story, M., Fulkerson, J.A, Hannan P. (2004). An environmental intervention to promote lower-fat food choices in secondary schools: outcomes of the TACOS study, American Journal of Public Health, 1507-12.

French, S., Hannan, P., Stat, M., Harnack, L., Mitchell, N., Toomey, T., Gerlach, A. (2010). Pricing and availability intervention in vending machines at four bus garages, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52, S29–S33.

Gerend, M.A. (2009). Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students?, Journal of Adolescent Health, 44:84-86.

Grunert, K.G., Fernández-Celemín, L., Wills, J.M., Bonsmann, S.S.G., Nureeva, L. (2010). Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries, Journal of Public Health, 18(3):261-277.

Harnack, L.J., French, S.A., Oakes, J.M., Story, M.T., Jeffery, R.W., Rydell, S.A. (2008). Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5:63.

Holdsworth, M., Raymond, N.T., Haslam, C. (2004). Does the Heartbeat Award scheme in England result in change in dietary behavior in the workplace?, Health Promotion International, 19:197-204.

Hruban, J.A. (1977). Selection of snack foods from vending machines by high school students, Journal of School Health, 47, 33.

Hunter, P.R. (1992). Bacteriological, Hygienic, and Public Health Aspects of Food and Drink from Vending Machines, Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, 22 (3/4): 151-167.

Kibblewhite, S., Bowker, S., Jenkins, H. (2010). Vending machines in hospitals-are they healthy?, Nutrition Food Science, 40, 26–28.

Kocken, P.L., Eeuwuk, J., van Kesteren, N.M.C., Dusseldorp, E., Buus, G., Bassa-Dafesh, Z., Snel, J. (2012). Promoting the Purchase of Low-Calorie Foods From School Vending Machines: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study, Journal of School Health, Vol.82, Nº 3, pp. 115-122.

Koehler, H.H., Lee, H.C., Jacobson, M. (1977). Tocopherols in canned entrées and vended sandwiches, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 70, 616.

Kubik, M., Lytle, L., Farbakhsh, K. (2011). School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111, 150–155.

Kubik, M. Y., Davey, C., Nanney, M. S., MacLehose, R. F., Nelson, T. F., & Coombes, B. (2013). Vending and school store snack and beverage trends. Minnesota secondary schools, 2002–2010, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(6), 583– 588.

Kubik, M. Y., Davey, C., MacLehose, R. F., Coombes, B., Nanney, M. S. (2015). Snacks, Beverages, Vending Machines, and School Stores: A Comparison of Alternative and Regular Schools in Minnesota, 2002 to 2008, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(1): 101-105.

Lawrence, S., Boyle, M., Craypo, L., Samuels, S. (2009). The food and beverage vending environment in health care facilities participating in the healthy eating, active communities program. Pediatrics, 123, S287–S292.

Lin, F., Yu, H., Hsu, C., Weng, T. (2011). Recommendation system for localized products in vending machines, Expert Systems With Applications, Vol. 38, Nº. 8, pp. 9129-9138.

Lytle, L.A., Kubik, M.Y., Perry, C., Story, M., Birnbaum, A.S., Murray, D.M. (2006). Influencing healthful food choices in school and home environments: results from the TEENS study, Preventive Medicine, 43(1):8-13.

MacKay, S. (2011). Legislative solutions to unhealthy eating and obesity in Australia, Public Health, 125, 896-904.

Matthews, M.A. and Horacek, T.M. (2015). Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review, Appetite, 90, 176-186.

Mintel. (2009). Vending - UK, May 2009. London, UK: Mintel International Group Limited.

MTV (Marketing, Tecnología y Vida). (2008). http://elviejoclub.blogspot.pt/2008/10/mercado-del-vending-2007-en-espaa.html. Retrieved on January 12, 2015.

Muckelbauer, R., Libuda, L., Clausen, K., Toschke, A.M., Reinehr, T., Kersting, M. (2009). Promotion and provision of drinking water in schools for overweight prevention: randomized, controlled cluster trial, Pediatrics, 123:661-667.

Naylor, P., Bridgewater, L., Purcell, M., Ostry, A., Vander-Wekken, S. (2010). Publically funded recreation facilities. Obesogenic environments for children and families?, International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health, 7, 2208–2221.

Park, H. and Papadaki, A. (2016). Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention, Appetite, 96, 517-525.

Pasch, K. E., Lytle, L. A., Samuelson, A. C., Farbakhsh, K., Kubik, M. Y., & Patnode, C. D. (2011). Are school vending machines loaded with calories and fat. An assessment of 106 middle and high schools. Journal of School Health, 81(4), 212–218.

Perry, C.L., Bishop, D.B., Taylor, G.L. (2004). A randomized school trial of environmental strategies to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption among children, Health Education & Behavior, 31: 65-76.

Raposo, A., Carrascosa, C., Pérez, E., Saavedra, P., Sanjuán, E., Millán, R. (2015). Vending machines: Food safety and quality assessment focused on food handlers and the variables involved in the industry, Food Control, Vol. 56, pp. 177-185.

Rideout, K., Levy-Milne, R., Martin, C., Ostry, A.S. (2007). Food sales outlets, food availability, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98(4):246-50.

Sacks, G., Rayner, M., Swinburn, B. (2009). Impact of front-of-pack ’traffic-light’ nutrition labeling on consumer food purchases in the UK, Health Promotion International, 24(4):344-352.

Shearer, T.R., DeSart, D.F., Isman. R.E., Sanzi-Schaedel, S.M., Pickles, T.M. (1980). Sugar content of vending machine foods, Journal of the Oregon Dental Association, 49, 32.

ULPGC (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria). (2015). http://www.ulpgc.es/index.php?pagina=presentacion&ver=datos_globales. Retrieved on May 30, 2015.

van der Horst, K., Timperio, A., Crawford, D., Roberts, R., Brug, J., Oenema, A. (2008). The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(3):217-23.

WHO (World Health Organization). (2013). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2013/salt_potassium_20130131/en/index.html. Retrieved on February 25, 2015.

Wiecha, J.L., Finkelstein, D., Troped, P.J., Fragala, M., Peterson, K.E. (2006). School vending machine use and fast-food restaurant use are associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake in youth, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(10):1624-16.