Main Article Content
Benzoic acid, yoghurt, Doogh, admissible limit, HPLC, Iran
The addition of benzoic acid is forbidden in by-product drink of yoghurt "Doogh" in Iran. However, this preservative can be naturally found in milk and its products. A total of 24 and 48 samples of yoghurt and Doogh were analyzed by HPLC method to assess the natural and permitted amount of benzoic acid. All samples of yoghurt and Doogh contained benzoic acid in mean amount of 1.5-5.0 mg/ Kg and 0.8-4.7 mg/ L, respectively. These findings showed that the amount of 6 mg/L can be defined for benzoic acid as admissible limit for Doogh in Iran.
Amirpour M., Arman A., Yolmeh A., Akbari Azam M. and Moradi-Khatoonabadi Z. 2015. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 8:142-148.
Cakir R. and Cagri-Mehmetoglu A. 2013. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 6: 47-54.
Codex Standard. 2003. "Codex standard for fermented milks. http:// www.codexalimentarius.org/input/download/standards/CXS_243e.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2015.
Elvira L., Duran C.M., Urrejola. J. and Espinosa F.R.M. 2014. Detection of microbial contamination in fruit juices using non-invasive ultrasound. Food Control 40: 145-150.
El-Zieny M. 2009. GC-MS analysis of benzoate and sorbate in Saudi dairy and food products with estimation of daily exposure. Journal of Food Technology 7:127-134.
Esfandiari Z., Badiey M., Mahmoodian P., Sarhangpour R., Yazdani E. and Mirlohi M. 2013. Simultaneous determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin content in Iranian yoghurt drink (Doogh) and the associated risk of their intake through Doogh consumption. Iranian Journal of Public Health 42: 915-920.
Garmiene G., Salomskiene J., Jasutiene I., Macioniene I. and Miliauskiene I. 2010. Production of benzoic acid by lactic acid bacteria from Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus genera in milk. Milchwissenschaft 65:295–298.
Gonzalez M., Gallego M. and Valcarcel M. 1998. Simultaneous gas chromatographic determination of food preservatives following solid-phase extraction. Journal of Chromatography A 823:321-329.
Guarino C., Fuselli F., La Mantia A. and Longo L. 2011. Development of an RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, natamycin and lysozyme in hard and pasta filata cheeses. Food Chemistry 127:1294-1299.
Hingmire S.R., Lembhe A.F., Zanjad P.N., Pawar V.D. and Machewad G.M. 2009. Production and quality evaluation of instant lassi. International Journal of Dairy Technology 62:80-84.
Hornickova S., Dragounova H., Hejtmankova K., Michlova T. and Hejtmankova K. 2014. Production of benzoic acid in feremented goat's and sheep's milk. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica 4: 247–253.
Iammarino M., Taranto A.D., Palermo C. and Muscarella M. 2011. Survey of benzoic acid in cheeses: contribution to estimation of an admissible maximum limit. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 4:231-237.
ISIRI. 2008. "Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran" 2th revision. no. 2453. Doogh-Specification and test method.
Javanmardi F., Nemati M., Ansarin M. and Rafie S.A. 2015. Benzoic and sorbic acid in soft drink, milk, ketchup sauce and bread by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 8:32-39.
Kamankesh M., Mohammadi A., Modarres Tehrani Z., Ferdowsi R. and Hosseini H. 2013. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of benzoate and sorbate in yogurt drinks and method optimization by central composite design. Talanta 109: 46-51.
Koyuncu N. and Uylaser V. 2009. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in some dairy products consumed in Turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry 21: 4901-4908.
Mihyar G.F., Yousif A.K. and Yamani M.I. 1999. Determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in Labaneh by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 12:53-61.
Qi P., Hong H., Liang X. and Liu D. 2009. Assessment of benzoic acid levels in milk in China. Food Control 20:414-418.
Sieber R., Bütikofer U. and Bosset J.O. 1995. Benzoic acid as a natural compound in cultured dairy products and cheese. International Dairy Journal 5:227–246.
Smith G. 2003 “Dairy processing, Improving quality”. Woodhead Publishing Limited, CRC Press, Ney York Washington, DC.
Sospedra I., Rubert J., Soriano J.M. and Manes J. 2012. Incidence of microorganisms from fresh orange juice processed by squeezing machines. Food Control 23: 282-285.
Tfouni S.A.V. and Toledo M.C.F. 2002. Determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in Brazilian food. Food Control 13:117-123.
Wang L., Zhang X., Wang Y. and Wang W. 2006. Simultaneous determination of preservatives in soft drinks, yogurts and sauces by a novel solid-phase extraction element and thermal desorption-gas chromatography. Analytica Chimica Acta 577:62-67.
Yildiz A., Erdogan S., Saydut A. and Hamamci C. 2012. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis and assessment of benzoic acid in yogurt, ayran, and cheese in Turkey. Food Analytical Methods 5:591-595.
Zamani Mazdeh F., Esmaeili Aftabdari F., Moradi-Khatoonabadi Z., Shaneshin M., Torabi P. , Shams Ardekani M.R. and Hajimahmoodi M. 2014. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 7: 115-119.
Zengin N., Yuzbasioglu D., Unal F. and Aksoy H. 2011. The evaluation of the genotoxicity of two food preservatives: sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49: 763-769.