Effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) powder addition on nutritional and sensory attributes of chicken mortadella

Main Article Content

Ayman M. El-Anany
Sami A. Althwab
Raghad M. Alhomaid
Rehab F. M. Ali
Hassan M. Mousa

Keywords

Food intake, Food processing, Antioxidant Activity, polyphenols, public health, Dietary supplements, Fatty acid

Abstract

The main objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the nutritional and sensory impacts of mortadella supplemented with various levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) powder (SP). Spirulina powder was investigated for its chemical composition, energy value, micronutrient concentration (mg/100 g), and functional qualities. The total amount of carotenoids, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity were assessed in chicken breast flesh and SP. Different SP (0–5.0%) proportions were integrated to mortadella recipes. The formulated mortadella samples were investigated for their proximate composition, mineral content, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties. SP possesses proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash, and lipids at 63.70, 15.84, 7.60, 7.49 and 5.37 g/100 g of dry sample, respectively. Water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) of SP were 1.77 g and 1.65 mL/g of the sample, respectively. The results of the current study revealed that the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of SP were significantly higher than those of chicken breast by 71.29- and 15.38-fold, respectively. Crude protein content of the mortadella control sample (SP0) was 13.58%, which increased to 14.17%, 14.72%, 15.33%, 15.95% and 16.49% for mortadella samples enhanced with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% SP, respectively. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and selenium contents in mortadella samples, partially replaced with 5% SP, were approximately 2.27-, 1.21-, 1.28-, 1.02-, 1.46-, 3.91-, 1.21- and 1.08-fold higher, respectively, compared to the control sample without SP addition. The highest levels of total carotenoids, total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity were found in the mortadella samples integrated with 3%, 4% and 5% SP. In contrast, the control sample and those supplemented with 1% and 2% SP were absolutely low in these constituents. The highest results (8.06–8.07) for overall acceptance were observed in mortadella samples with 2% and 3% SP.

Abstract 418 | PDF Downloads 511 HTML Downloads 40 XML Downloads 93

References

Ali R.F., El-Anany A.M., Mousa H.M. and Hamad E.M. 2020. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with roasted prickly pear (Opuntia fcus-indica) seed four. Food Funct. 11(3):2117–2125. 10.1039/C9FO02532D

Al Marazzeq A.K., Haddadin M., Abdullah, M.A.L. and Angor, M. 2015. Effect of nitrite substitution with olive oil leaves extract on color and sensory properties of beef mortadella. J Agric Sci. 7:120‒128. 10.5539/jas.v7n12p120

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2012. Official Methods of Analysis, 19th ed. AOAC, Rockville, MD.

Bashir S., Sharif M.K., Butt M.S. and Shahid M. 2016. Functional properties and amino acid profile of spirulina platensis protein isolates. Pak J Sci Ind Res Biol Sci. 59(1):12–19. 10.52763/PJSIR.BIOL.SCI.59.1.2016.12.19

Câmara J.S., Albuquerque B.R., Aguiar J., Corrêa R.C.G., Gonçalves J.L., Granato D., et al. 2021. food bioactive compounds and emerging techniques for their extraction: polyphenols as a case study. Foods. 10:37. 10.3390/foods10010037

Cruz-Solorio A.R., Villanueva-Arce M.E., Garín-Aguilar H., Leal-Lara G. and Valencia-del T. 2018. Functional properties of flours and protein concentrates of 3 strains of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. J Food Sci Technol. 55(10):3892–3901. 10.1007/s13197-018-3312-x

Decker E.A. and Park Y. 2010. Healthier meat products as functional foods. Meat Sci. 86:49–55. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.021

Deng R. and Chow T. 2010. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of microalgae spirulina. Cardiovasc Ther. 28(4):e33–e45. 10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00200.x

Doménech-Asensi G., García-Alonso F.J., Martínez E., Santaella M., Martín-Pozuelo G., Bravo S., et al. 2013. Effect of the addition of tomato paste on the nutritional and sensory properties of mortadella. Meat Sci. 93:213–219. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.08.021

El-Anany A.M., Ali R. F.M. and Elanany A.M.M. 2020. Nutritional and quality characteristics of chicken nuggets incorporated with different levels of frozen white cauliflower. Ital J Food Sci. 32(1):45. 10.14674/IJFS-1550

Fradinho P., Niccolai A., Soares R., Rodolfi L., Biondi N., Tredici M.R., et al. 2020. Effect of Arthrospira platensis (spirulina) incorporation on the rheological and bioactive properties of gluten-free fresh pasta. Algal Res. 45:101743. 10.1016/j.algal.2019.101743

Freitas B.C.B., Santos, T.D., Moreira J.B., Zanfonato K., Morais M.G. and Costa J.A.V. 2019. Novel foods: a meal replacement shake and a high-calorie food supplemented with spirulina biomass. Int Food Res J. 26(1):59–65. http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my

Fuller S., Beck E., Salman H. and Tapsell L. 2016. New horizons for the study of dietary fiber and health: a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 71:1–12. 10.1007/s11130-016-0529-6

Gomez K.A. and Gomez A.A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd ed. IRRI, New York, NY; 680 p. ISBN: 10:0471879312.

Guarda A., Rosell C.M., Benedito C. and Galotto, M.J. 2004. Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and anti-staling agent. Food Hydrocolloid. 18:241–247. 10.1016/S0268-005X(03)00080-8

Hamzah M., Shaik M.I. and Sarbon N.M. 2021. Effect of fish protein hydrolysate on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of shortfin scad (Decapterus macrosoma) emulsion sausage. Food Res. 5(3):225–235. 10.26656/fr.2017.5(3).354

Hidayati J.R., Yudiati E., Pringgenies D., Oktaviyanti D.T. and Kusuma A.P. 2020. Comparative study on antioxidant activities, total phenolic compound and pigment contents of tropical Spirulina platensis, Gracilaria arcuata and Ulva lactuca extracted in different solvents polarity. In: E3S Web of Conferences; EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France, vol. 147: 03012. 10.1051/e3sconf/202014703012

Janda-Milczarek K., Szymczykowska K., Jakubczyk K., Kupnicka P., Skonieczna-Zydecka K., Pilarczyk B., et al. 2023. Spirulina supplements as a source of mineral nutrients in the daily diet. Appl Sci. 13:1011. 10.3390/app13021011

Juntachote T. and Berghofer E. 2005. Antioxidative properties and stability of ethanolic extracts of holy basil and ga langal. Food Chem. 92(2):193–202. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.044

Khan Z., Bhadouria P. and Bisen P.S. 2005. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of spirulina. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 6(5):373–379. 10.2174/138920105774370607

Kent M., Welladsen H.M., Mangott A., and Y, Li. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of Australian microalgae as potential human health supplements. PLoS One. 10(2): 1–14. 10.1371/journal.pone.0118985

Kim S.K. 2015. Handbook of Marine Microalgae: Biotechnology Advances. Academic Press, Waltham, MA; 300 p.

Kumar A., Ramamoorthya D., Verma D.K., Kumar A.R., Kumar N., Kanak K.R., Marweina B.M. and Mohan K. 2022. Antioxidant and phytonutrient activities of Spirulina platensis. Energy Nexus. 6(100070):1–9. 10.1016/j.nexus.2022.100070

Machado A.R., Silva P.M.P., Vicente A.A., Souza-Soares L.A., Pinheiro A.C. and Cerqueira M.A. 2022. Alginate particles for encapsulation of phenolic extract from spirulina sp. LEB-18: physicochemical characterization and assessment of in vitro gastrointestinal behavior. Polymers. 14:4759. 10.3390/polym14214759

Maltini E., Torreggiani D., Venir E. and Bertolo G. 2003. Water activity and the preservation of plant foods. Food Chem. 82(1):79–86. 10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00581-2

Masten Rutar J., Jagodic Hudobivnik M., Nečemer M., Vogel Mikuš K., Arčon I. and Ogrinc N. 2022. Nutritional quality and safety of the spirulina dietary supplements sold on the Slovenian market. Foods. 11:849. 10.3390/foods11060849

Mohammed A.M., El-Anany A.M., Althwab S.A., Alhomaid R.M., Alharbi H.F., Algheshairy R.M., et al. 2022. Nutritional and quality attributes of bread fortified with cheese weed mallow leaves powder. Nutr Food Sci. 53(6): 1045–1058. 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0094

Navacchi M.F.P., De Carvalho J.C.M., Takeuchi K.P. and Danesi E.D.G. 2012. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis. Acta Scientiarum Technol (Maringa). 34(4):465–472. 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

Raczyk M., Polanowska K., Kruszewski B., Grygier A. and Michałowska D. 2022. Effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation on physical and chemical properties of semolina (Triticum durum)-based fresh pasta. Molecules. 27(2):355. 10.3390/molecules27020355

Robinson, R.K., Carl, A. B. and Pradip, D. P., 2000. Encyclopedia of food microbiology. In: Single- Cell Protein/The algae. Academic press, A Harcourt Sc. and Tech. Company. 3: 2025–2026.

Saldaña E., de Oliveira A., Selani M.M., Haguiwara M.M.H., Aurelio de Almeida M., Siche R. and Contreras-Castillo C.J. 2018. A sensometric approach to the development of mortadella with healthier fats. Meat Sci. 137:176–190. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.027

Santos Junior A.C., Maia Junior J., Henry F.D.C., Oliveira R.F.D., Quirino C.R., Leal Martins M.L, Moreira Moulin M. and Cabral N.O. 2018. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of mutton mortadella supplemented with yacón meal. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria. 18(7):1–10.

Santos Junior A.C., Oliveira R.F.D., Henry F.D.C., Maia Junior J., Moreira Moulin M., Della Lucia S.M., et al. 2020. Physicochemical composition, lipid oxidation, and microbiological quality of ram mortadella supplemented with Smallanthus sonchifolius meal. Food Sci Nutr. 8:5953–5961. 10.1002/fsn3.1880

Shahidi F. 2009. Nutraceuticals and functional foods: whole versus processed foods. Trends Food Sci Technol. 20(9):376–387. 10.1016/j.tifs.2008.08.004

Stengel D.B., Connan S. and Popper Z.A. 2011. Algal chemodiversity and bioactivity: sources of natural variability and implications for commercial application. Biotechnol Adv. 29(5):483–501. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.05.016

Tóldrá F., Mora L. and Flores M. 2010. Cooked ham. In: Tóldrá, F. (Ed.), Handbook of Meat Processing (pp. 301–312). Wiley-Blackwell, IA.

Trindade M.A., Thomazine M., Oliveira J.M., Balieiro J.C.C. and Favaro-Trindade C.S. 2010. Estabilidade oxidativa, microbiológica e sensorial de mortadela contendo óleo de soja, armazenada a 0°C durante 60 dias. Brazil J Food Technol. 13(03):165–173. 10.4260/BJFT2010130300022.

Vargas Zambrano P., Riera González G. and Cruz Viera, L. 2019. Quinoa as gellingagent in a mortadela formulation. Int Food Res J. 26:1069–1077.

Winiarska-Mieczan A. and Kwiecien M. 2011. Evaluation of the mineral composition of breadstuff and frequency its consumption among students of Lublin universities. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 10:487–495.

Yasumatsu K, Sawada K, Maritaka S, Toda J, Wada T, Ishi K (1972). Whipping and emulsifying properties of soy bean products. Agri. Biol. Chem. 36: 719–727.

Yuan G.-F. Sun B, Yuan V. and Wang Q.M. 2009. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli. J Zhejiang Univ B. 10(8):580–588. 10.1631/jzus.B0920051