Effects of acidified apple juice before fermentation on ethyl carbamate and volatile components of apple distillate

Main Article Content

Zhicong Su
Yingying Han
Jinhua Du

Keywords

apple distillate, ethyl carbamate, sulfuric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid

Abstract

In order to eliminate ethyl carbamate (EC) content in apple distillate, Fuji apple juice was acidified to pH 3.0 by sulfuric acid (ST), malic acid (MT), lactic acid (LT), or citric acid (CT). The acidified juice was inoculated with yeast, fermented at room temperature, and distilled by double distillation. Acid treatment by ST (3.23 μg/L), MT (3.20 μg/L), LT (2.93 μg/L), and CT (3.57 μg/L) significantly eliminated EC from apple distillate. Combined with the EC content and sensory evaluation, it was suggested that the high-quality apple distillate could be obtained with lower EC if apple juice was treated with ST or MT before fermentation.

Abstract 780 | PDF Downloads 602 HTML Downloads 138 XML Downloads 110

References

Alcarde A., Souza L. and Bortoletto A. 2012. Ethyl carbamate kinetics in double distillationof sugar cane spirit. J Inst Brewing. 118: 27–31. 10.1002/jib.14

Arcari S., Caliari V., Sganzerla M. and Godoy H. 2017. Volatile composition of Merlot red wine and its contribution to the aroma: optimization and validation of analytical method. Talanta. 174: 752–766. 10.1016/j.talanta.2017.06.074

Arena M. and Nadra M. 2005. Influence of ethanol and low pH on arginine and citrulline metabolism in lactic acid bacteria from wine. Res Microbiol. 156: 858–864. 10.1016/j.resmic.2005.03.010

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1994. Methanol in cordials and liqueurs. AOAC official method 940.06. AOAC, Washington, DC. Available at: http://down.foodmate.net/standard/sort/10/27190.html. Accessed on July 28, 2022.

Awad P., Athès V., Decloux M., Ferrari G., Snakkers G., Raguenaud P., et al. 2017. Evolution of volatile compounds during the distillation of Cognac spirit. J Agric Food Chem. 65: 7736–7748. 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02406

Balcerek M., Pielech-Przybylska K., Patelski P., Dziekońska-Kubczak U. and Strąk E. 2017. The effect of distillation conditions and alcohol content in ‘heart’ fractions on the concentration of aroma volatiles and undesirable compoundsin plum brandies. J Inst Brewing. 123: 452–463. 10.1002/jib.441

European Food Safety Authority. 2007. Ethyl carbamate and hydrocyanic acid in food and beverages—scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants. EFSA J. 551: 1–44. 10.2903/j.efsa.2007.551

General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China. 2008. Brandy GB/T 11856. Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Available at: http://down.foodmate.net/standard/yulan.php?itemid=17307. Accessed on July 26, 2022.

Gao W., Fan W. and Xu Y. 2014. Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type Chinese liquor by gas chromatography−olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies. J Agric Food Chem. 62: 5796–5804. 10.1021/jf501214c

Guth H. 1997. Quantitation and sensory studies of sharacter impact odorants of different white wine varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 45: 3027–3032. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf970280a

Han Y., Du J. and Song Z. 2021. Effects of the yeast endogenous β-glucosidase on hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) wine ethyl carbamate and volatile compounds. J Food Comp Anal. 103: 104084. 10.1016/j.jfca.2021.104084

ISO. 2012. “International Organization for Standardization” Sensory analysis — General guidelines for the selection, training and monitoring of selected assessors and expert sensory assessors. ISO 8586. Chemin de Blandonnet 8 CP 401 1214 Vernier, Geneva. Accessed date was July 26, 2022.

Jia W., Fan Z., Du A. and Shi L. 2022. Molecular mechanism of Mare Nectaris and magnetic field on the formation of ethyl carbamate during 19 years aging of Feng-flavor Baijiu. Food Chem. 382: 132357. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132357

Jiao Z., Dong Y. and Chen H. 2014. Ethyl carbamate in fermented beverages: presence, analytical chemistry, formation mechanism, and mitigation proposals. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 13(4): 611–626. 10.1111/1541-4337.12084

Ledauphin J., Guichard H. and Saint-Clair J. 2003. Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 2. identification of volatile compounds and key odorants. J Agric Food Chem. 51: 433–442. 10.1021/jf020373e

Ledauphin J., Milbeau C., Barillier D. and Hennequin D. 2010. Differences in the volatile compositions of French labeled brandies (Armagnac, Calvados, Cognac, and Mirabelle) using GC-MS and PLS-DA. J Agric Food Chem. 58: 7782–7793. 10.1021/jf9045667

Lerena M., Rojo M., Sati S., Mercado L., Krieger-Weber S. and Combina M. 2016. Malolactic fermentation induced by Lactobacillus plantarum in Malbec wines from Argentina. S Afr J Enology Viticult. 37: 2. 10.21548/37-2-827

López-Vázquez C., Bollaín M., Berstsch K. and Orriols I. 2010. Fast determination of principal volatile compounds in distilled spirits. Food Control. 21: 1436–1441. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.03.008

Marques C., Sotiles A., Farias F., Oliveira G., Mitterer-Daltoé M. and Masson M. 2020. Full physicochemical characterization of malic acid: emphasis in the potential as food ingredient and application in pectin gels. Arab J Chem. 13: 9118–9129. 10.1016/j.arabjc.2020.10.036

National Health and Family Planning Committee of China. 2014. Chinese Standards for Food Additives GB/T 2760. Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Available at: http://down.afoodmate.net/standard/sort/3/42543.html. Accessed on August 10, 2022.

National Health and Family Planning Committee of China. 2016. Chinese Standards for Food Additives GB/T 5009.36. Chinese standards for determination of cyanide in food. Beijing, the People’s Republic of China. Available at: http://down.foodmate.net/standard/sort/3/50421.html. Accessed on August 8, 2022.

Peinado R., Moreno J., Bueno J., Moreno J. and Mauricio J. 2004. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in two young white wines subjected to pre-fermentative cryomaceration. Food Chem. 84: 585–590. 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00282-6

Qin Z., Petersen M. and Bredie W. 2018. Flavor profiling of apple ciders from the UK and Scandinavian region. Food Res Int. 105: 713–723. 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.003. Accessed date was August 5, 2022.

Satora P. and Tuszynski T. 2010. Influence of indigenous yeasts on the fermentation and volatile profile of plum brandies. Food Microbiol. 27: 418–424. 10.1016/j.fm.2009.12.005

Schaber P., Colson J., Higgins S., Thielen D., Anspach B. and Brauer J. 2004. Thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of urea in an open reaction vessel. Thermochim Acta. 424: 131–142. 10.1016/j.tca.2004.05.018

Sun S., Che C., Sun T., Lv Z., He S., Gu H., et al. 2013. Evaluation of sequential inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcusoeni strains on the chemical and aromatic profiles of cherry wines. Food Chem. 138: 2233–2241. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.12.032

Sun Z., Tang Y., Iwanaga T., Sho T. and Kida K. 2011. Production of fuel ethanol from bamboo by concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis followed by continuous ethanol fermentation. Bioresour Technol. 102: 10929–10935. 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.071

Taki N., Imamura L., Takebe S. and Kobashi K. 1992. Cyanate as a precursor of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages. Jpn J Toxicol Environ Health. 38(6): 498–505. 10.1248/jhs1956.38.498

Tu Q., Qi W., Zhao J., Zhang L. and Guo Y. 2018. Quantification ethyl carbamate in wines using reaction-assisted-extraction with 9-xanthydrol and detection by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 1001: 86–92. 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.022

Uthurry C., Lepe J., Lombardero J. and Hierro J. 2006. Ethyl carbamate production by selected yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in red wine. Food Chem. 94: 262–270. 10.1248/jhs1956.38.498

Versini G., Franco M., Moser S., Barchetti P. and Manca G. 2009. Characterisation of apple distillates from native varieties of Sardinia island and comparison with other Italian products. Food Chem. 113: 1176–1183. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.003

Villière A., Arvisenet G., Bauduin R., Quéré J. and Sérot T. 2015. Influence of cider-making process parameters on the odourant volatile composition of hard ciders. J Inst Brewing. 121: 95–105. 10.1002/jib.197

Wang X., Fan W. and Xu Y. 2014a. Comparison on aroma compounds in Chinese soy sauce and strong aroma type liquors by gas chromatography–olfactometry, chemical quantitative and odor activity values analysis. Eur Food Res Technol. 239: 813–825. 10.1007/s00217-014-2275-z

Wang P., Sun J., Li X., Wu D., Li T., Lu J., et al. 2014b. Contribution of citrulline to the formation of ethyl carbamate during Chinese rice wine production. Food Addit Contam. 31(4): 587–592. 10.1080/19440049.2013.878869

Wang X., Tao Y., Wu Y., An R. and Yue Z. 2017. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard. Food Chem. 226: 41–50. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.007

Wang C., Wang M. and Zhang M. 2021. Ethyl carbamate in Chinese liquor (Baijiu): presence, analysis, formation, and control. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 105: 4383–4395. 10.1007/s00253-021-11348-1

Wei J., Zhang Y., Wang Y., Ju H., Niu C., Song Z., et al. 2020. Assessment of chemical composition and sensorial properties of ciders fermented with different non-Saccharomyces yeasts in pure and mixed fermentations. Int J Food Microbiol. 318: 108471. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108471

Welke J., Zanus M., Lazzarotto M. and Zini C. 2014. Quantitative analysis of headspace volatile compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and their contribution to the aroma of Chardonnay wine. Food Res Int. 59: 85–99. 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.002

Willner B., Granvogl M. and Schieberle P. 2013. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept. J Agric Food Chem. 61: 9583–9593. 10.1021/jf403024t

Won S, Seo J., Kwak H., Lee Y., Kim M., Shim H., et al. 2015. Quality characteristics and quantification of acetaldehyde and methanol in apple wine fermentation by various pre-treatments of mash. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 20(4): 292–297. 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.292

Xiang X., Lan Y., Gao X., Xie H., An Z., Lv Z., et al. 2020. Characterization of odor-active compounds in the head, heart, and tail fractions of freshly distilled spirit from Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Res Int. 137: 109388. 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109388

Xiao Z., Zhou X., Niu Y., Yu D., Zhu J. and Zhu G. 2015. Optimization and application of headspace-solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile compounds in cherry wines. J Chromatogr B. 978–979: 122–130. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.12.006

Zhong W., Chen T., Yang H. and Li E. 2020. Isolation and selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts being capable of degrading citric acid and evaluation its effect on kiwi fruit wine fermentation. Fermentation. 6(1): 25. 10.3390/fermentation6010025

Zimmerli B. and Schlatter J. 1991. Ethyl carbamate: analytical methodology, occurrence, formation, biological activity and risk assessment. Mutat Res. 259: 325–350. 10.1016/0165-1218(91)90126-7