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Additives, amino acids, alkaline, treatment, Pacific white shrimp
Phosphate and bicarbonate have been used widely to improve the yield and quality of processed shrimp. Recently, their uses are banned in some countries. Thus, alternative additives have been searched. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of alkaline soaking solution (ASS), 0.75% NaOH containing 2.5% NaCl, pH 11.5 in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamic acid and arginine) at various concentrations (1-3%) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The lowest cooking loss with the highest cooking yield was obtained for the sample treated with ASS containing glutamic acid, especially at high level (3%) (P<0.05). ASS containing 3% glutamic acid (pH 11.5) reduced cooking loss and increased weight gain and cooking yield more effectively than that having pH 7 (P<0.05). When shrimp were treated with ASS having 3% monosodium glutamate (MSG) with the same mole equivalent to glutamic acid, the higher weight gain but slightly lower cooking yield were obtained, in comparison with those treated with ASS containing 3% glutamic acid (P<0.05). ASS containing 3% MSG had no effect on color and shear force of cooked shrimp. ASS involving 3% MSG partially solubilized some proteins in shrimp muscle including myosin heavy chain, actin and proteins with MW less than 26 kDa., thereby loosening muscle compartments. Therefore, ASS containing 3% MSG could be used as the potential phosphate and bicarbonate replacers for shrimp treatment.
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