Main Article Content
biofortification, descriptive analysis, essential micronutrient, functional food, potato, triangle test
The present study assessed the sensory impact of potatoes biofortification with iodine and the stability of iodine during six months of storage. Four biofortified cultivars (Cupido, Marabel, Orchestra and Universa) and their controls (non-biofortified) were evaluated. The present study assessed the sensory impact of potatoes biofortification with iodine and the stability of iodine during six months of storage. Four biofortified cultivars (Cupido, Marabel, Orchestra and Universa) and their controls (non-biofortified) were evaluated. Descriptive analysis was applied with a panel to describe the sensory properties, and triangle tests were applied with consumers to evaluate perceivable differences between controls and respective biofortified samples at the end of shelf life. Iodine content was quantified on raw potatoes for three periods of storage. Descriptive analysis showed some differences between controls and iodine-biofortified samples, especially in texture (hardness). However, consumers did not significantly discriminate fortified from unfortified samples. Iodine was stable during storage in all varieties. Orchestra cultivar showed the highest iodine content, while Universa the lowest.
Caffagni, A., Arru, L., Meriggi, P., Milc, J., Perata, P. and Pecchioni, N. 2011. Iodine fortification plant screening process and accumula-tion in tomato fruits and potato tubers. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42(6):706–718. https://doi.org/10.10 80/00103624.2011.550372.
Caffagni, A., Pecchioni, N., Meriggi, P., Bucci, V., Sabatini, E., Acciarri, N., Ciriaci, T. et al. 2012. Iodine uptake and distribu-tion in horticultural and fruit tree species. Italian Journal of Agronomy 7(3):229–236. https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2012.e32.
Carvalho, Susana M.P. and Vasconcelos, Marta W. 2013. Producing more with less: strategies and novel technologies for plant-based food biofortification. Food Research International 54(1):961– 971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.12.021.
Comandini, P., Cerretani, L., Rinaldi, M., Cichelli, A. and Chiavaro, E. 2013. Stability of Iodine during cooking: investiga-tion on biofortified and not fortified vegetables. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 64(7):857–861. https:// doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2013.798270.
Dal Bello, B., Torri, L., Piochi, M., Bertolino, M. and Zeppa, G. 2017. Fresh cheese as a vehicle for polyunsaturated fatty acids integration: effect on physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory char-acteristics. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 68(7):800–810. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2017.1301891.
Dwyer, Johanna T, Wiemer, K.L., Dary, O., Keen, C.L., King, Janet C., Miller, Kevin B., Philbert, Martin A et al. 2015. Fortification and health: challenges and opportunities. Advances in Nutrition 6(1):124–131. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.114.007443.
Fuge, R. and Johnson, C. C. 2015. Iodine and human health, the role of environmental geochemistry and diet, a review. Applied Geochemistry 63:282–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. apgeochem.2015.09.013.
Gonzali, S., Kiferle, C. and Perata, P. 2017. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 44:16–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2016.10.004.
Greis, M., Seppä, L., Venäläinen, E.R., Lyytikäinen, A. and Tuorila, H. 2018. LWT—food science and technology impact of iodized table salt on the sensory characteristics of bread, sausage and pickle. LWT 93(2017, November):606–612. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.04.009.
Hotz, C. 2013. Biofortification Editor: Benjamin Caballero. In: Encyclopedia of human nutrition, third edition, Editor-in-Chief: Benjamin Caballero. Elsevier, pp. 175-181. https://doi. org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375083-9.00025-8
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2004. Sensory analysis—methodology—triangle Test. ISO 4120:2004.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2007. General guidance for the design of test rooms. ISO 8589:2007.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2012. Training and monitoring of selected assessors and expert sensory assessors. ISO 8586:2012 selection.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2016. Sensory analysis methodology: general guidance for establishing a sensory profile. ISO 13299:2016, p. 41.
Jarén, C., López, A. and Arazuri, S. 2016. Advanced analytical techniques for quality evaluation of potato and its products. advances in potato chemistry and technology, 2nd ed. Elsevier, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800002-1.00019-4.
Khattak, R.M., Khattak, M.N.K., Ittermann, T. and Völzke, H. 2017. Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: a global perspective. Journal of Epidemiology 27(6):249–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.je.2016.04.003.
Meilgaard, MC, Civille, G.V. and Carr, B.T. 2007a. Descriptive analysis technique. In Sensory evaluation techniques, 4th ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 173–88. https://doi.org/10.2320/ materia.46.171.
Meilgaard, MC, Civille, G.V. and Carr, B.T. 2007b. Overall differ-ence tests: does a sensory difference exist between samples? In Sensory evaluation techniques, 4th ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 63–104. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16452-7
Osterc, A., Stibilj, V. and Raspor, P. 2011. Iodine in the environment. In Encyclopedia of environmental health, Editor-in-Chief: J.O. Nriagu. Elsevier B.V. pp. 280–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/ B978-0-444-52272-6.00705-4.
Saltzman, A, Birol, E., Bouis, Howarth E., Boy, E., De Moura, Fabiana F., Islam, Y. and Pfeiffer, Wolfgang H. 2013. Biofortification: progress toward a more nourishing future. Global Food Security 2(1):9–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. gfs.2012.12.003.
Smolen, S., Kowalska, I. and Sady, W. 2014. Assessment of biofortification with iodine and selenium of lettuce cultivated in the NFT hydroponic system. Scientia Horticulturae 166:9–16. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.11.011.
Tonacchera, M., Dimida, A., Servi, M. De, Frigeri, M., Ferrarini, E., Marco, G. De, Grasso, L. et al. 2013. Iodine fortification of vegetables improves human iodine nutrition: in vivo evidence for a new model of iodine prophylaxis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 98(4):694–697. https://doi. org/10.1210/jc.2012-3509.
Torri, L., Piochi, M., Marchiani, R., Zeppa, G., Dinnella, C. and Monteleone, E. 2016. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders. Journal of Dairy Science 99(1):194–204. https://doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2015-9922.
Trumpff, C., Schepper, J. De, Tafforeau, J., Oyen, H.V., Vanderfaeillie, J. and Vandevijvere, S. 2013. Mild iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Europe and its consequences for cognitive and psychomotor development of children: a review. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 27(3):174–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2013.01.002.
Verbeke, W. 2006. Functional foods: consumer willingness to compromise on taste for health? Food Quality and Preference 17(1– 2):126–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2005.03.003.
Weng, H. X., Hong, C.L., Xia, T.H., Bao, L.T., Liu, H.P. and Li, D.W. 2013. Iodine biofortification of vegetable plants-an innovative method for iodine supplementation. Chinese Science Bulletin 58(17):2066–2072. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-013-5709-2.
West, C. E and Koning, F.L.H.A. De. 1995. Effect of iodized salt on the colour and taste of food. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, report under contract No. PD/95/009.
Winger, R.J., König, J., and House, Don A. 2008. Technological issues associated with iodine fortification of foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19(2), 94-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tifs.2007.08.002 .
Yu, X., Houtman, C. and Atalla, R.H. 1996. The complex of amylose and iodine. Carbohydrate Research 292:129–141. https://doi. org/10.1016/0008-6215(96)00159-0.
Zanirato, V. and Mayerle, M. 2009. Method for enriching crops with iodine, and crops thus obtained. European patent specification No. EP 2 234 471 B1, issued 2009. https://doi.org/10.1385/ BTER.
Zimmermann, Michael B. and Andersson, M. 2012. Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future. Nutrition Reviews 70(10):553–570. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00528.x.