Main Article Content
antioxidant activity, Capsicum, chemical profile, monovarietal extra virgin olive oil, oxidative stability
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Capsicum baccatum L. Aji Angelo and Bishop crown cultivars to the quality parameters of flavoured olive oils (FOOs) obtained by the addition of both fresh and dried pepper powders (1%) to Dolce di Rossano and Roggianella monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). First, pepper extracts were investigated for their total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid content as well as phenolic acids, fatty acid profile, and vitamin C and E content. In order to evaluate the impact of both fresh and dried peppers on the oxidative stability of FOOs, the Rancimat test was applied. 2,2-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-carotene bleaching (B-CB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to investigate the antioxidant potential. Bishop crown dried extracts showed the highest phenolic, carotenoid and vitamin content, whereas Aji Angelo had the highest amount of capsaicinoids. Among EVOOs, Roggianella EVOO showed the highest antioxidant activity as well as the highest induction time (39.6 h). Remarkably, FOO obtained by the addition of Bishop crown dried pepper extract to Roggianella EVOO showed a higher induction time (44.9 h) with respect to the corresponding EVOO.
Ammar, I., BenAmira, A., Khemakem, I., Attia, H. and Ennouri, M., 2017. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology 54: 1502–1510. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s13197-017-2581-0
Antolovich, M., Prenzler, P.D., Patsalides, E., McDonald, S. and Robards, K., 2002. Methods for testing antioxidant activity. Analyst 127: 183–198. https://doi.org/10.1039/B009171P
Ayadi, M.A., Grati-Kamoun, N. and Attia, H., 2009. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47: 2613–2619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. fct.2009.07.024.
Baiano, A., Gambacorta, G. and La Notte, E., 2010. Aromatization of olive oil. Transworld Research Network, Trivandrum, India, pp. 1–29.
Baiano, A., Gambacorta, G., Terracone, C., Previtali, M.A., Lamacchia, C. and La Notte, E., 2009. Changes in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Italian extra-virgin olive oils during storage. Journal of Food Science 74: C177?C183. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01072.x
Blasi, F., Pollini, L. and Cossignani, L., 2019. Varietal authentication of extra virgin olive oils by triacylglycerols and volatiles analysis. Foods 8: 58–69. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020058
Borrello, E. and Domenici, V., 2019. Determination of pigments in virgin and extra-virgin olive oils: a comparison between two near UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Foods 8: 18. https://doi. org/10.3390/foods8010018
Caporaso, N., Paduano, A., Nicoletti, G. and Sacchi, R., 2013. Capsaicinoids, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds in olive oil flavored with dried chili pepper (Capsicum annuum). European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 115: 1434– 1442. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300158
Commission Regulation (EU) No 61/2011 of 24 January 2011. Official Journal of the European Union, L 23.
European Union Commission, 2016. Consolidated text on the characteristics of olive oil and olive-residue oil and on the relevant methods of analysis. 01991R2568 — IT — 04.12.2016 — 031.005.
European Union Commission, Regulation CE 1989/2003, 2003. Amending Regulation EEC 2568/91. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 295.
European Union Commission, Regulation EEC 2568/91, 1991. Characteristics of olive and olive-pomace oils and on their analytical methods. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 248.
Fazio, A., Iacopetta, D., La Torre, C., Ceramella, J., Muià, N., Catalano, A., Carocci, A. and Sinicropi, M.S., 2018. Finding solutions for agricultural wastes: antioxidant and antitumor properties of pomegranate Akko peel extracts and ?- glucan recovery. Food & Function 9: 6618?6631. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8fo01394b
Firestone, D., 1993. Official methods and recommended practices of the American oil chemists’ society. 4th ed., American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL.
Gambacorta, G., Faccia, M., Pati, S., Lamacchia, C., Baiano, A. and La Notte, E., 2007. Changes in the chemical and sensorial profile of extra virgin olive oils flavored with herbs and spices during storage. Journal of Food Lipids 14: 202–215. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00080.x
Gao, X., Ohlander, M., Jeppsson, N., Björk, L. and Trajkovski, V., 2000. Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during maturation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 1485–1490. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf991072g
Gargouri, B., Ammar, S., Zribi, A., Ben Mansour, A. and Bouaziz, M., 2013. Effect of growing region on quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of chemlali extra-virgin olive oils. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35: 2801–2812. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11738-013-1312-z
Giuffrè, A. and Louadj, L., 2013. Influence of crop season and cultivar on sterol composition of monovarietal olive oils in Reggio Calabria (Italy). Czech Journal of Food Sciences 31: 256–263. https://doi.org/10.17221/136/2012-CJFS
Giuffrè, A.M., Piscopo, A., Sicari, V. and Poiana, M., 2010. The effects of harvesting on phenolic compounds and fatty acids content in virgin olive oil (cv Roggianella). Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse 87: 14–23.
Gouveia, A., Duarte, C., Beirão-da-Costa, M., Bernardo-Gil, G. and Moldão, M.M., 2006. Oxidative stability of olive oil flavoured by Capsicum frutescens supercritical fluid extracts. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 108: 421–428. https:// doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200500273
IOC, 2009. COI/T.15/NC n. 3/Rev. 4. November 2009. Trade Standard Applying to Olive Oils and Olive-Pomace Oils, Madrid.
Issaoui, M., Flamini, G., Souid, S., Bendini, A., Barbieri, S., Gharbi, I., Toschi, T.G., Cioni, P.L. and Hammami, M., 2016. How the addition of spices and herbs to virgin olive oil to produce flavored oils affects consumer acceptance. Natural Product Communications 11: 775–780. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1601100619
Klein, B.P. and Perry, A.K., 1982. Ascorbic acid and vitamin A activity in selected vegetables from different geographical areas of the United States. Journal of Food Science 47: 941–945. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb12750.x
Lavelli, V. and Bondesan, L., 2005. Secoiridoids, tocopherols, and antioxidant activity of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils extracted from destoned fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 1102–1107. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048848k
Leporini, M., Loizzo, M.R., Tenuta, M., Falco, T., Vincenzo, S., Pellicanò, T. and Tundis, R., 2018. Calabrian extra-virgin olive oil from Frantoio cultivar: chemical composition and health properties. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 30: 631– 637. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2018.v30.i7.1743
Loizzo, M.R., Bonesi, M., Serio, A., Chaves-López, C., Falco, T., Paparella, A., Menichini, F. and Tundis, R., 2017. Application of nine air-dried Capsicum annum cultivars as food preservative: micronutrient content, antioxidant activity and foodborne pathogens inhibitory effects. International Journal of Food Properties 20: 899–910. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1188310
Loizzo, M.R., Pugliese, A., Bonesi, M., Menichini, F. and Tundis, R., 2015. Evaluation of chemical profile and antioxidant activity of twenty cultivars from Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chacoense and Capsicum chinense: a comparison between fresh and processed peppers. LWT-Food Science and Technology 64: 623–631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. lwt.2015.06.042
Loizzo, M.R., Sicari, V., Tundis, R., Leporini, M., Falco, T. and Calabrò, V., 2019. The influence of ultrafiltration of Citrus limon L. Burm. cv Femminello comune juice on its chemical composition and antioxidant, and hypoglycaemic properties. Antioxidants, 8: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8010023
Menichini, F., Tundis, R., Bonesi, M., Loizzo, M.R., Conforti, F., Statti, G., De Cindio, B., Houghton, P.J. and Menichini, F., 2009. The influence of fruit ripening on the phytochemical content and biological activity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv Habanero. Food Chemistry 114: 553–560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foodchem.2008.09.086
Mínguez-Mosquera, M.I., Gandul-Rojas, B., Garrido-Fernández, J. and Gallardo-Guerrero, L., 1990. Pigments present in virgin olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 67: 192– 196. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02539624
Montedoro, G.F., Servili, M., Baldioli, M. and Miniati, E., 1992. Simple and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. 1. Their extraction, separation and quantitative compounds and semiquantitative evaluation by HPLC. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40: 1571–1576. https://doi.org/10.1021/ jf00021a019
Negro, C., Aprile, A., Luvisi, A., Nicolì, F., Nutricati, E., Vergine, M., Miceli, A., Blando, F., Sabella, E. and De Bellis, L., 2019. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Italian monovarietal extra virgin olive oils. Antioxidants 8: E161. https://doi.org/10.3390/ antiox8060161
Piscopo, A., De Bruno, A., Zappia, A., Ventre, C. and Poiana, M., 2016. Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Food Chemistry 213: 313–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.080
Plastina, P., Apriantini, A., Meijerink, J., Witkamp, R., Gabriele, B. and Fazio, A., 2018. In vitro anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) essential oils. Nutrients 10: 783–796. https://doi.org/10.3390/ nu10060783
Rubió, L., Motilva, M.-J., Macià, A., Ramo, T. and Romero, M.-P., 2012. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from Thyme. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 3105– 3112. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204902w
Sena-Moreno, E., Alvarez-Ortí, M., Serrano-Díaz, J., Pardo, J.E., Carmona, M. and Alonso, G.L., 2018. Olive oil aromatization with saffron by liquid-liquid extraction. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 55: 1093–1103. https://doi. org/10.1007/s13197-017-3025-6
Sicari, V., 2017. Antioxidant potential of extra virgin olive oils extracted from three different varieties cultivated in the Italian province of Reggio Calabria. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 90: 76–82. https://doi.org/10.5073/JABFQ.2017.090.011
Sicari, V., Giuffrè, A., Louadj, L. and Poiana, M., 2010. Evolution of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil during 12 months storage. Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse 87: 109–116.
Sun, T. and Tanumihardjo, S.A., 2007. An integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity. Journal of Food Science 72: 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00552.x.
Tripodi, P. and Kumar, S., 2019. The Capsicum crop: an introduction. In: Ramchiary, N. and Kole, C. (eds.) The capsicum genome. Compendium of plant genomes. Springer, New York, USA pp. 1–8.
Tuberoso, C.I.G., Jerkovi?, I., Maldini, M. and Serreli, G., 2016. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and other characteristics of extra virgin olive oils from Italian autochthonous varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana. Journal of Chemistry 2016: 8462741. https://doi. org/10.1155/2016/8462741
Tundis, R., Menichini, F., Bonesi, M., Conforti, F., Statti, G., Menichini, F. and Loizzo, M.R., 2013. Antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities and their relationship to phytochemicals in Capsicum annuum cultivars during fruit development. LWT-Food Science and Technology 53: 370–377. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.02.013
Wahyuni, Y., Ballester, A.-R., Sudarmonowati, E., Bino, R.J. and Bovy, A.G., 2013. Secondary metabolites of Capsicum species and their importance in the human diet. Journal of Natural Products 76: 783–793. https://doi.org10.1021/np300898z
Yoo, K.M., Lee, C.H., Lee, H., Moon, B.K. and Lee, C.Y., 2008. Relative antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of common herbs. Food Chemistry 106: 929–936. https://10.1016/j. foodchem.2007.07.006
Yorulmaz, H.O. and Konuskan, D.B., 2017. Antioxidant activity, sterol and fatty acid compositions of Turkish olive oils as an indicator of variety and ripening degree. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 54: 4067–4077. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s13197-017-2879-y