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celiac disease, poultry products, gluten-free batter, functional foods


In parallel to the increased incidences of celiac diseases, the demand to produce a significant array of gluten-free products is rapidly growing. A total of 28 dry and liquid coatings of chicken nuggets were formulated using seven blend ratios of rice-to-corn flours (0:100, 100:0, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 40:60 and 30:70), two levels of corn starch (5 and 15%), 0.3% methyl cellulose (MC), and/or 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), and other ingredients such as 2% xanthan gum, 2% sucrose, 2.5% salt and 1% spice. Based on visual evaluations 16 groups were eliminated at first stage. After sensory analyses, six group out of remaining 12 were selected and gluten analyses was performed. Although all had the gluten level below the legal limit of 20 mg/kg, three formulations (30:70, 40:60 and 60:40) with the lowest amounts of gluten out of six were selected, and the rest of the experiments were continued with these final three formulas. The CMC-containing formulations had higher sensory scores than the MC-containing ones. The addition of more than 40% rice flour adversely affected sensory and textural properties. The use of 15% corn starch, instead of 5%, enhanced the textural parameters.

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