Main Article Content
fatty acids, “Nero di Parma ham”, Parma ham, sensory profile
This paper provides preliminary results on “Nero di Parma” ham analysing fatty acid composition from fat and muscle tissues in three locations. Computerized Tomography (CT) and sensory characteristics were also performed. The same measurements were investigated in Parma ham too. Significant differences in terms of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids composition were observed between hams resulting lower and higher in “Nero di Parma” ham than Parma ham respectively. Results detected by CT showed an inverse ratio of fat and muscle between the hams. “Nero di Parma” ham highlighted some descriptors such as oiliness, brightness, redness significantly different from Parma useful to define the sensory profile of a typical product which had never been tested.
Bermúdez R., Franco I., Franco D., Carballo J. and Lorenzo J.M. 2012. Influence of inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured ham from Celta pig breed. Meat Sci. 92:394.
Berdaguè J. L., Bonnaud N., Rousset S. and Touraille C.1993. Influence of pig crossbreed on the composition, volatile compound content and flavour of dry cured ham. Meat Sci. 34:129.
Bosi P., Cacciavillani J.A., Casini L., Lo Fiego D.P., Marchetti M. and Mattuzzi S. 2000. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham. Meat Sci. 54:119.
Buscailhon S., Berdaguè J. L., Bousset J., Cornet M.G., Gandemer G., Touraille C. and Campo M.M. and Sierra I. 2011. Fatty acid composition of selected varieties of Spanish dry-cured ham. Surveys from 1995 and 2007. Span. J. Agric. Res. 9:66.
Candek-Potokar M. and Škrlep M. 2012. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review. Animal, 6:327.
Caroprese M., Marzano A., Marino R., Gliatta G., Muscio A. and Sevi A. 2010. Flaxseed supplementation improves fatty acid profile of cow milk. J. Dairy Sci. 93:2580.
Caroprese M., Albenzio M., Bruno A., Fedele V., Santillo A. and Sevi A. 2011. Effect of solar radiation and flaxseed supplementation on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes under high ambient temperature. J. Dairy Sci. 94:3856.
Cava R., Ventanas J., Ruiz J., Andrès A.I. and Antequera T. 2000. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: Influence of rearing system and muscle location. Food Sci. Tech. Int. 6:235.
Cebulska A., Václavková E., Bocian M., Dybala J., Wisniewska J. and Kapelanski W. 2018. Quality and dietary value of pork meat of the Pulawska and Zlotnicka spotted breeds, and commercial fattening pigs. Ann. Anim. Sci. 18:281.
Cheng W., Cheng J.H., Sun D.W. and Pu H. 2015. Marbling Analysis for Evaluating Meat Quality: Methods and Techniques. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 14:523.
Cieslak A., Kowalczyk J., Czauderna M., Potkanski A. and Szumacher-Strabel M. 2010. Enhancing unsaturated fatty acids in ewe’s milk by feeding rapeseed or linseed oil. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 55:496.
Estévez M., Morcuende D. and Cava R. 2003. Oxidative and colour changes in meat from free-range reared Iberian pigs slaughtered at 90 kg live-weight and commercial pig under refrigerated storage. Meat Sci. 65:1139.
Estévez M., Morcuende D. and Cava R. 2006. Extensively reared Iberian pigs versus intensively reared white pigs for the manufacture of frankfurters. Meat Sci. 72:356.
EN ISO 13299. 2010 Sensory Analysis –Methodology –General Guidance for Establishing a Sensory Profile.
Fernández D, Menéndez R. A., Sanz J.J and García-Fernández M del C. 2015. Fatty acid profile of two cured meat products: dry-cured ham and cecina. Nutr. Hosp. 32 :367.
Fernández M., Ordonez J.A., Cambero I., Santos C., Pin C. and de la Hoz L. 2007. Fatty acid compositions of selected varieties of Spanish dry ham related to their nutritional implications. Food Chem. 101:107.
Folch J., Lees M. and Sloane Stanley G.H. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497.
Franco I., Escamilla M.C., García J., Fontán M.C.G. and Carballo J. 2006. Fatty acid profile of the fat from Celta pig breed fattened using a traditional feed: Effect of the location in the carcass. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19:792
Gandemer G. 2009. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review. Grasas Aceites, 60:297.
Ganji V., Hampl J.S. and Betts N.M. 2003. Race, gender and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US children. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 54:485.
Garcia-Contreras C., Vazquez-Gomez M., Torres-Rovira L., Gonzalez J., Porrini E., Gonzalez-Colaço M., Isabel B., Astiz S. and Gonzalez-Bulnes A. 2018. Characterization of ageing-and diet-related swine models of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Intern. J. Mol. Sci. 19:823.
Garcia-Gonzalez D.L., Roncales P., Cilla I., del Rio S., Poma J.P. and Aparicio R. 2006. Interlaboratory evaluation of dry-cured hams (from France and Spain) by assessors from two different nationalities. Meat Sci. 73:521.
Hounsfield G.N. 1980. Computed medical imaging. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 4:665.
Jimenez-Colmenero F., Ventanas J. and Toldrá F. 2010. Nutritional composition of dry cured ham and its role in a healthy diet. Meat Sci. 84:585
Joo S.T., Hwanga Y.H. and Ryub Y.C. 2013. Control of fresh meat quality through manipulation of muscle fiber characteristics. Meat Sci. 95:825.
Jurado A., García C., Timón M.L. and Carrapiso A.I. 2007. Effect of ripening time and rearing systems on amino acid-related flavour compounds of Iberian ham. Meat Sci. 75:585.
Klont R.E., Brocks L. and Eikelenboom G. 1998. Muscle fibre type and meat quality. Meat Sci. 49:219.
Laureati M., Buratti S., Giovanelli G., M. Corazzin, Lo Fego D.P. and Pagliarini E. 2014. Characterization and differentiation of Italian Parma, San Daniele and Toscano dry cured hams: A multidisciplinary approach. Meat Sci. 96:288.
Lawrie R.A. 1998. The eating quality of meat. In Meat Science (sixth ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.
Lea P., Tormod N. and Morit R. 1997. Analysis of variance for sensory data, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., England, 1997
Lorenzo J.M., Montes R., Purrinos L., Cobas N. and Franco D. 2012. Fatty acid composition of Celta pig breed as influenced by sex and location of fat in the carcass. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:1311.
Macfie H.J., Bratchell N., Greenhoff K. and Vallis L.V. 1989. Designs to balance the effect of order of presentation and first-order carry-over effects in hall tests. J. Sens. Stud. 4:129.
Monin G. 1994. Relations between compositional traits and sensory qualities of French dry-cured ham. Meat Sci. 37:229.
Morrison W.R. and Smith L.M. 1964. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethyl acetals from lipids with boron fluoride-methanol. J. Lipid Res. 5:600.
Mourot J. and Hermiern D. 2001. Lipid in monogastric animal meat. Repr. Nutr. Devel. 41:109.
Muriel E., Ruiz J., Ventanas J. and Antequera T. 2002. Free-range rearing increases (n -3) polyunsaturated fatty acids of neutral and polar lipids in swine muscles. Food Chem. 78:219.
Musella M., Cannata S., Rossi R., Mourot J., Baldini P. and Corino C. 2009. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from extruded linseed influences the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham from heavy pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3578.
Neel, J.V. 1962. Diabetes mellitus: A “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”? Am. J. Hum. Genet. 14:353.
Nishimura T. 2010. The role of intramuscular connective tissue in meat texture. Anim. Sci. J. 81:21.
Nishimura T. 2015. Role of extracellular matrix in development of skeletal muscle and postmortem aging of meat. Meat Sci. 109:48.
Okrouhlá M., Stupka R., Cítek J., Šprysl M., and Brzobohatý L. 2013. Effect of dietary linseed supplementation on the performance, meat quality, and fatty acid profile of pigs. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 58:279.
Pastorelli G., Magni S., Rossi R., Pagliarini E., Baldini P., Dirinck P., Van Opstaele F and Corino C. 2003. Influence of dietary fat, on fatty acid composition and sensory properties of dry-cured Parma ham. Meat Sci. 65:571.
Peiretti P.G. and Meineri G. 2010. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits. It. J. Anim. Sci. 9:372-377.
Pérez-Palacios T., Antequera T., Durán M.L., Caro A., Rodríguez P.G. and Ruiz J. 2010. MRI-based analysis, lipid composition and sensory traits for studying Iberian dry-cured hams from pigs fed with different diets. Food Res. Intern. 43:248.
Picouet P., Teran F., Gispert M. and Font i Furnols M. 2010. Lean content prediction in pig carcasses, loin and ham by computerized tomography (CT) using a density model. Meat Sci. 86:616.
Razmaite V., Švirmickas G.J. and Šiukšcius A. 2012. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 11:174.
Resano H., Perez-Cueto F.J.A., Sanjuàn A.I., de Barcellos M.D., Grunert K.G. and Verbeke W. 2011. Consumer satisfaction withdry-cured ham in five European countries. Meat Sci. 87:336.
Ruiz J., Garcia C., Muriel E., Andres A.I. and Ventanas J. 2002. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham. Meat Sci. 61:347.
Ruiz J., Cava R., Antequera T., Martin L., Ventanas J. and Lopez-Bote C.J. 1998. Prediction of the feeding background of Iberian pigs using the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous muscle and hepatic fat. Meat Sci. 49:155.
Ruiz-Carrascal J., Ventanas J., Cava R., Andrés A. and García C. 2000. Texture and appearance of dry cured ham as affected by fat content and fatty acid composition. Food Res. Intern. 33:91.
Santos C., Hoz L., Cambero M.I., Cabeza M.C. and Ordóñez J.A. 2008. Enrichment of dry-cured ham with a-linolenic acid and a-tocopherol by the use of linseed oil and a-tocopheryl acetate in pig diets. Meat Sci. 80:668.
Toldra F., Flores F. and Sanz M. 1997. Dry-cured ham flavour: enzymatic generation and process influence. Food Chem. 59:523.
Tous N., Lizardo R., Vilà B., Marina Gispert M., Furnols M.F. and Garcia E.E. 2013. Effect of a high dose of CLA in finishing pig diets on fat deposition and fatty acid composition in intramuscular fat and other fat depots. Meat Sci. 93:517.
Ulbricht T.L. and Southgate D.A.T. 1991. Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. The Lancet 338:985.
Ventanas S., Ventanas J, Tovar J., García C. and Estevez M. 2007. Extensive feeding versus oleic and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits. Meat Sci. 77:246.
WHO technical report series 916. WHO, Geneva (2003).
Wood J.D. and Enser M. 1997. Factors influencing fatty acids in meat and the role of antioxidants in improving meat quality. Br. J. Nutr. 78:S49-S60.
Wood J.D., Enser M., Fisher A.V., Nute G.R., Sheard P.R. and Richardson R.I. 2008. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 78:343.
Wood J.D, Nute G.R., Richardson R.I., Whittington F.M, Southwood O. and Plastow G. 2004. Effects of breed diet and muscle on fat deposition and eating quality in pig. Meat Sci. 67:651.
Xiong Z., Sun D.W., Pu H., Gao W. and Dai Q. 2017. Applications of emerging imaging techniques for meat quality and safety detection and evaluation: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57:755.