Main Article Content
white truffle flavoring, BMTM, GC-C-IRMS, 1H NMR
Bis(methyl-thio)methane (BMTM), the molecule which provides “white truffle-like” flavor was characterized by physico-chemical methods. Analysis by GC-C-IRMS of eight samples of synthetic BMTM from various raw material suppliers allowed the investigation of the 13C values. More, ten samples purchased on the Italian flavoring market, declared as synthetic BMTM principal component diluted in olive oil were analyzed by GC-C-IRMS. The results of both sample groups allowed us to define the range of 13C values of synthetic BMTM.
We verified if the simple proposed extraction method allows to measure the 13C value of BMTM also identified in seasonings of the Italian market declared on label as “white truffle flavored olive oil”. In all twenty samples purchased on the market, the data strictly corresponded with synthetic BMTM as the principal component.
Measurements by 1H NMR made on synthetic BMTM and BMTM extracted from “white truffle-like flavor” confirmed that the adopted extraction method using methanol-d4 determined the isotopic distribution of 13C/12C ratio in two characteristic sites of this molecule.
Borsino del tartufo, 2018. www.tuber.it/en/borsino-del-tartufo.php. (most recent access date 12 April 2018).
Coplen T.B. 2011. Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 25:2538-2560.
Costa R., Fanali C., Pennazza G., Tedone L., Dugo L., Santonico M., Sciarrone D., Cacciola F., Cucchiarini L., Dachà M. and Mondello L. 2015. Screening of volatile compounds composition of white truffle during storage by GCxGC-(FID/MS) and gas sensor array analyses. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 60:905-913.
Díaz P., Señoráns F.J., Reglero G. and Ibáñez E. 2002. Truffle aroma analysis by headspace solid phase micoextraction. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50:6468-6472.
Díaz P., Ibáñez E., Señoráns F.J. and Reglero G. 2003. Truffle aroma characterization by headspace solid-phase microextraction. J. Chromatogr. A1017:207-214.
European Union (EU) Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods and Amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 1601/91, Regulations (EC) No 2232/96 and (EC) No 110/2008. Off. J. Eur. Union, L: Legis. 2008, 51, 34-50.
Fiecchi A., Galli Kienle M., Scala A. and Cabella P. 1967. Bis-methylthiomethane, an odorous substance from white truffle, Tuber magnatum pico. Tetrahedron Lett. 8:1681-1682.
Gioacchini A.M., Menotta M., Guescini M., Saltarelli R., Ceccaroli P., Amicucci A., Barbieri E., Giomaro G. and Stocchi V. 2008. Geographical traceability of Italian white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) by the analysis of volatile organic compounds. Rapid Commun. Mass Sp. 22:3147-3153.
Mauriello G., Marino R., D’Auria M., Cerone G. and G.L. Rana. 2004. Determination of volatile organic compounds from truffle via SPME-GC-MS. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 42:299-305.
Pacioni G., Cerretani L., Procida G. and Cichelli A. 2014. Composition of commercial truffle flavores oils with GC-MS analysis and discrimination with an electronic nose. Food Chem. 146:30-35.
Pelusio F., Nilsson T., Montanarella L., Tilio R., Larsen B., Facchetti S. and Madsen J. 1995. Headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis of volatile organic sulfur compounds in black and white truffle aroma. J. Agr. Food Chem. 43:2138-2143.
Schmidberger P.C. and Schieberle P. 2017. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in white Alba truffle (Tuber magnatum pico) and Burgundy truffle (Tuber uncinatum) by means of the sensomics approach. J. Agr. Food Chem. 65:9287-9296.
Talou T., Delmas M. and Gaset A. 1989. The volatile components of tinned black perigord truffles Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Flavour Frag. J. 4:109-112.
van Leeuwen K.A., Prenzler P.D., Ryan D. and Camin F. 2014. Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry for traceability and authenticity in foods and beverages. Comprehensive Rev. Food Sci. F.13:814-83.