Main Article Content



Arabic gum, drum drying, Nigella sativa powder


This study determined the feasibility of drum drying process in producing drum dried Nigella sativa L. beverage powder using the response surface methodology to determine the effect and relationship between percentage of Arabic gum and drying temperature on the quality of the Nigella sativa powder produced. About 32.7 % of Arabic gum and 119.1 °C of drying temperature were the optimum parameters for the production of Nigella sativa powder. Antioxidants and calcium content of Nigella sativa powder decreased significantly, while the iron, manganese, and sodium contents increased significantly after the drum drying process.

Abstract 376 | pdf Downloads 255


Abonyi B.I., Feng H., Tang J., Edwards C.G., Chew B.P., Mattinson D.S. and Fellman J.K. 2002. Quality retention in strawberry and carrot purees dried with Refractance WindowTM system. Journal of Food Science 67 (3):1051.

AOAC. 2000. “Official methods of analysis of the AOAC”. International 17th ed. Association of Official AnalyticalChemists, Washington, DC.

Arteaga G.E., Li-ChanE., Vazquez-Arteaga M.C. and Nakai S. 1994. Systematic experimental designs for product formula optimization. Trends in Food Science & Technology 5 (8):243.

Bas D. and Boyaci I.H. 2007. Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. Journal of food engineering 78 (3):836.

Bryngelsson S., Dimberg L.H. and Kamal E.A. 2002. Effects of commercial processing on levels of antioxidants in oats (Avena sativa L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (7):1890.

Cano-Chauca M., Stringheta P.C., Ramos A.M and Cal-Vidal J. 2005. Effect of the carriers on the microstructure of mango powder obtained by spray drying and its functional characterization. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 6 (4):420.

Caparino O.A., Tang J., Nindo C.I., Sablani S.S., Powers J.R. and Fellman J.K. 2012. Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’var.) powder. Journal of Food Engineering 111 (1):135.

Chen X.D. and Patel K.C. 2008. Manufacturing better quality food powders from spray drying and subsequent treatments. Drying Technology 26 (11):1313.

Chia S.L. and Chong G.H. 2015a. Effect of drum drying on physico-chemical characteristics of dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus). International journal of food engineering 11 (2):285.

Chia S.L. and Chong G.H. 2015b. Effect of rotation speed and steam pressure on physico-chemical properties of drum dried pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel. International Food Research Journal 22 (1). 372.

Costa S.S., Machado B.A.S., Martin A.R., Bagnara F., Ragadalli S.A. and Alves A.R.C. 2015. Drying by spray drying in the food industry: Micro-encapsulation, process parameters and main carriers used. African Journal of Food Science, 9(9). 462.

Davey M.W., Montagu M.V., Inzé D., Maite S., Kanellis A., Smirnoff N., Iris J. J.B., John J. S., Favell D. and Fletcher J. 2000. Plant L-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80 (7):825.

Erkan N., Ayranci G. and Ayranci E. 2008. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, black seed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chemistry 110 (1):76.

Fernandes R.V.B., Borges S.V. and Botrel D.A. 2013. Influence of spray drying operating conditions on microencapsulated rosemary essential oil properties. Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 33:171.

Forouzanfar F., Bazzaz B.S.F. and Hosseinzadeh H. 2014. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): A review on antimicrobial effects. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences 17 (12):929.

Gohel M., Patel M., Amin A., Agrawal R., Dave R. and Nehal B. 2004. Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique. AAPs PharmSciTech 5 (3):10.

Hsu C.L., Chen W., Weng Y.M. and Tseng C.Y. 2003. Chemical composition, physical properties, and antioxidant activities of yam flours as affected by different drying methods. Food chemistry 83 (1):85.

Kakade R.H., Das H. and Shaukat A. 2011. Performance evaluation of a double drum dryer for potato flake production. Journal of food science and technology 48 (4):432.

Kharelep C.P. 2004. Encyclopedia of indian medicinal plants (regional western therapy ayurvedic and other traditional usage, botany. Springer-verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Komes D., Bušic A., Vojvodic A., Belšcak-Cvitanovic A. and Mirjana H. 2015. Antioxidative potential of different coffee substitute brews affected by milk addition. European Food Research and Technology 241 (1):115.

Lim Y.Y. and Murtijaya J. 2007. Antioxidant properties of Phyllanthus amarus extracts as affected by different drying methods. LWT-Food Science and Technology 40 (9):1664.

Mara R. A. and Netto F.M. 2005. Effect of encapsulating materials on water sorption, glass transition and stability of juice from immature acerola. International Journal of Food Properties 8 (2):337.

Özcan M., Arslan D. and Ünver A. 2005. Effect of drying methods on the mineral content of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Food Engineering 69 (3):375.

Ramadan M.F. 2007. Nutritional value, functional properties and nutraceutical applications of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.): an overview. International journal of food science & technology 42 (10):1208.

Shin L.E.R., Zzaman W., Kuang W.T. and Rajeev B. 2015. Influence of dehydration techniques on physicochemical, antioxidant and microbial qualities of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.: an underutilized green leafy vegetable. Journal of food processing and preservation 39 (6):1118.

Singleton V.L. and Rossi J.A. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture 16 (3):144.

Speight J.G. 2015. Handbook of coal analysis: John Wiley & Sons.

Steele R. 2004. Understanding and measuring the shelf-life of food: Woodhead Publishing.

Topuz A., Feng H. and Kushad M. 2009. The effect of drying method and storage on color characteristics of paprika. LWT-Food Science and Technology 42 (10):1667.

Troller J. A. and Christian, J. H. B. 1978. Water activity and food. New York: Academic Press

Turchiuli C., Munguia M.T.J., Sanchez M.H., Ferre H.C. and Dumoulin E. 2014. Use of different supports for oil encapsulation in powder by spray drying. Powder Technology 255:103.

Valous N.A., Gavrielidou M.A., Karapantsios T.D. and Kostoglou M. 2002. Performance of a double drum dryer for producing pregelatinized maize starches. Journal of Food Engineering 51 (3):171.

Varastegani B., Zzaman W. and Tajul A.Y. 2015. Investigation on physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies substituted with papaya pulp flour. Journal of Food Quality 38 (3):175.

Venkatachallam S.K.T., Pattekhan H., Divakar S. and Kadimi U.S. 2010. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of food science and technology 47 (6):598.

Zhang D. and Yasunori H. 2004. Phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of broccoli and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking. Food Chemistry 88 (4):503.