THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND METHOD OF DRYING ON ISOT (URFA PEPPER) AND ITS VITAMIN C DEGRADATION KINETICS

Main Article Content

Ş. DAĞHAN
A. YILDIRIM
F. MEHMET YILMAZ
H. VARDIN
M. KARAASLAN

Keywords

drying, ascorbic acid, isot, degradation kinetics, mathematical modeling

Abstract

This study investigated drying and vitamin C degradation kinetics in isot (red peppers) at different temperatures (55, 65 and 75°C) and conditions (vacuum and hot air drying). The drying temperature and method had a significant effect on the loss of vitamin C. Vacuum dried samples at 55°C retained the highest quantity of vitamin C, while the samples dried at 75°C in a cabinet dryer lost the highest amount of vitamin C. The results showed that vitamin C is especially sensitive to the presence of oxygen and higher temperatures. The Weibull model was found to provide the mathematical equation best describing the ascorbic acid degradation kinetics in red peppers, while the Page model best reflected the drying kinetics.

Abstract 646 | pdf Downloads 345

References

Aghbashlo M., Kianmehr M.H. and Samimi-Akhljahani H. 2008. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of barberries fruit (Berberidaceae). Energ. Convers. Manage. 49:2865-2871.

Akpinar E.K., Bicer Y. and Yildiz C. 2003. Thin layer drying of red pepper. J. Food Eng. 59:99-104.

Andrews J. 1995. Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums (4th ed., pp. 81). University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

Chayjan R.A., Parian A.J. and Esna-Ashari M. 2011. Modeling of moisture diffusion, activation energy and specific energy consumption of high moisture corn in a fixed and fluidized bed convective dryer. Span. J. Agric. Res. 9:28-40.

Cunha L.M., Oliveira F., and Oliveira J.C. 1998. Optimal experimental design for estimating the kinetic parameters of processes described by the Weibull probability distribution function. J. Food Eng. 37(2):175-191.

Darvishi H., Asl A.R., Asghari A., Azadbakht M., Najafi G., and Khodaei J. 2014. Study of the drying kinetics of pepper. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 13(2):130-138.

Di Scala K.C. and Crapiste G.H. 2008, Drying kinetics and quality changes during drying of red pepper. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 41:789-795.

Erenturk S., Gulaboglu M.S., and Gultekin S. 2005. The effects of cutting and drying medium on the vitamin C content of rosehip during drying. J. Food Eng. 68(4):513-518.

Fazaeli M., Yousefi S. and Emam-Djomeh Z. 2011. Investigation on the effects of microwave and conventional heating methods on the phytochemicals of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and black mulberry juices. Food Res. Int. 50:568-573.

Giri S.K., and Prasad S. 2007. Drying kinetics and rehydration Characteristics of microwave-vacuum and convective hot-air dried mushrooms. J. Food Eng. 78(2):512-521.

Gowen A., Abu-Ghannam N., Frias J., and Oliveira J. 2007. Modeling the water absorption process in chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.)-The effect of blanching pretreatment on water intake and texture kinetics. J. Food Eng. 78, 810-819.

Gogus F., and Maskan M. 1998. Water transfer in potato during air drying. Drying Technol. 16:1715-1728.

Henderson S.M. 1974. Progress in developing the thin layer drying equation. T. ASAE. 17:1167-1172.

Henderson S.M. and Pabis S. 1961. Grain drying theory: I Temperature effect on drying coefficient. J. Agr. Eng. Res.6:169-174.

Hiwilepo-van Hal P., Bosschaart C., van Twisk C., Verkerk R., and Dekker M. 2012. Kinetics of thermal degradation of vitamin C in marula fruit (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) as compared to other selected tropical fruits. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 49(2):188-191.

Kamiloglu S., Pasli A.A., Ozcelik B., and Capanoglu E. 2014. Evaluating the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics and antioxidant activity during consumption of dried fruits with nuts. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 56:284-289.

Karaaslan M., Yilmaz F. M., Cesur Ö., Vardin H., ikinci A., and Dalgiç A. C. 2014. Drying kinetics and thermal degradation of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in pomegranate arils dried under vacuum conditions. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 49:595-605.

Kaymak-Ertekin F., and Gedik A. 2005. Kinetic modeling of quality deterioration in onions during drying and storage. J. Food Eng. 68(4):443-453.

Kaymak-Ertekin F. 2002. Drying and rehydrating kinetics of green and red peppers. J. Food Sci. 67:168-175.

Kumar O.A., and Sape S.T. 2009. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.). Not. Sci. Biol. 1:50-52,

Lee Y., Howard L.R. and Villalon B. 1995. Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars. J. Food Sci. 60:473-476.

Manso C.M., Oliveira F.A.R., Oliveira J.C. and Frías J.M. 2001. Modelling ascorbic acid thermal degradation and browning in orange juice under aerobic conditions. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech.36:303-312.

Marfil P., Santos E., and Telis V. 2008. Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics in tomatoes at different drying conditions. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 41(9):1642-1647.

Marin A., Ferreres F., Tomás-Barberán F.A., and Gil M.I. 2004. Characterization and quantitation of antioxidant constituents of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:3861-3869.

Midilli A. 2001. Determination of pistachio drying behavior and conditions in a solar drying system. Int. J. Energ. Res. 25:715-725.

Midilli A., Olgun H., and Ayhan T. 1999. Experimental studies on mushroom and pollen drying. Int. J. Energ. Res. 23(13):1143-1152.

Mujumdar A.S. 2012. Industrial Transfer Processes, (pp. 12-13). NUS, Singapore.

Nadeem M., Anjum F.M., Khan M.R., Saeed A.R. 2011. Antioxidant Potential of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum L.)-A Review, Pakistan Journal of Food Science 21:(1-4).

Oms-Oliu G., Odriozola-Serrano I., Soliva-Fortuny R., and Martin-Belloso O. 2009. Use of Weibull distribution for describing kinetics of antioxidant potential changes in fresh-cut watermeon. J. Food Eng. 95(1):99-105.

Pere C. and Rodier E. 2002. Microwave vacuum drying of porous media: Experimental study and qualitative considerations of internal transfers. Chem. Eng. Proc. 41:427-436.

Puwastien P., Siong E.T., Kantasubrata J., Craven G., Feliciano R.R., and Judprasong K. 2011. ASEAN Manual of Food Analysis, Regional Centre of ASEAN Network of Food Data System, 141.

Santos P.H.S. and Silva M.A. 2008. Retention of Vitamin C in Drying Processes of Fruits and Vegetables-A Review. Drying Technol. 26:1421-1437.

Sarker M.R. and Gohda E. 2013. Promotion of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin IgM and IgG antibody productions in vitro by red bell pepper extract. J. Funct. Food. 5:1918-1926.

Sarsavadia P.N., Sawhney R.L., Pangavhane D.R., and Singh S.P. 1999. Drying behaviour of brined onion slices. J. Food Eng. 40:219-226.

Stefanelli D., Winkler S., Frisina Jones, and C.R. 2014. Reduction in Nitrogen Prior to Harvest Increases Phenolic Content of Baby Red Lettuce Leaves, Agricultural Sciences 5:546-554.

Sigge G.O., Hansmann C.F. and Joubert E. 1999. Optimizing the dehydration conditions of green bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.): quality criteria. J. Food Quality. 22:439-452.

Teodoro A.F.P., Alves R.B.N., Ribeiro L.B., Reis K., Reifschneider F.J.B., Fonseca M.E.N., Silva J.P., and Costa T.S.A. 2013. Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense). Hort. Bras.31:59-62.

Therdthai N. and Zhou, W. 2009. Characterization of microwave vacuum drying and hot air drying of mint leaves (Mentha cordifolia Opizex Fresen). J. Food Eng. 91: 482-489.

Togrul I.T., and Pehlivan D. 2002. Mathematical modeling of solar drying of apricots in thin layers. J. Food Eng. 55:209-216.

Turhan M., Turhan K.N. and Sahbaz F. 1997. Drying Kinetics of Red Pepper. J. Food Process. Preserv. 21:209-223.

Vega-Galvez A., Lemus-Mondaca R., Bilbao-Sáinz C., Fito P. and Andrés A. 2008. Effect of drying temperature on the quality of rehydrated dried red bell pepper (var. Lamuyo). J. Food Eng. 85(1):42-50, 2008.

Veras A.O.M., Béttega R., Freire F.B., Barrozo M.A.S. and Freire J.T. 2012. Drying kinetics, structural characteristics and vitamin C retention of dedode-moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum) during convective and freeze drying. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 29:741-750.

Villota R. and Hawkes J.G. 1986. Kinetics of nutrients and organoleptic changes in foods during processing. In: Physical and chemical properties of food. ASAE (pp.266-366). Michigan, USA.

Wang C.Y. and Singh R.P. 1978. Use of variable equilibrium moisture content in modeling rice drying. T. ASAE. 11:668-672.

White G.M., Ross I.J. and Ponelert R. 1981. Fully exposed drying of popcorn. T. ASAE. 24:466-468.

Yaldiz O. and Ertekin C. 2001. Thin layer solar drying of some vegetables. Drying Technol. 19:583-596.

Yaldiz O., Ertekin C. and Uzun H.I. 2001. Mathematical modelling of thin layer solar drying of sultana grapes. Energ. Int. J. 26: 457-465.

Yildirim A., Öner M.D., and Bayram M. 2011. Fitting Fick’s model to analyze water diffusion into chickpeas during soaking with ultrasound treatment. J. Food Eng.104:134-142.

Yilmaz F.M., Yüksekkaya S., Vardin H. and Karaaslan M. 2017. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil). J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 16:33-40.

Zhang Q. and Litchfield J.B.1991. An optimization of intermittent corn drying in a laboratory scale thin layer dryer. Drying Technol. 9:383-395.