Main Article Content



bread, Portulaca oleracea, Purslane, sensory evaluation, fortification, physichochemical properties


Portulaca oleracea (purslane) can be used as a vegetable and herb for medical and food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of voluminous breads enriched by different amounts of purslane powder (0, 5, 10, and 15%) were compared to a control group. The results showed that, with an increase in the concentration of Purslane in samples, water absorption capacity, stability under mixer, and softening level increased. Adding 15% of purslane powder decreased farinograph quality number significantly. Addition of purslane powder also improved resistance to extension and decreased extensibility, energy, and viscosity of the dough significantly. In terms of sensory properties, the sample with 15% purslane powder obtained the minimum score and other samples had acceptable conditions in terms of different sensory properties like taste, texture, color, odor, and general acceptability. In summary incorporation of purslane in voluminous bread is feasible and the optimum percentage of the purslane powder is 10% for the best acceptance in sensory evaluation.
Abstract 266 | pdf Downloads 224


AACC, C. (2000). Approved methods of the American Association of cereal chemists. Methods 54:21.

Alam A., Juraimi A.S., Yusop M.R., Hamid A.A. and Hakim A. 2014. Morpho-physiological and mineral nutrient characterization of 45 collected Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions. Bragantia 73:426-437.

Alam M., Juraimi A.S., Rafii M., Abdul Hamid A., Aslani F., Hasan M. et al. 2014. Evaluation of antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activities, and mineral composition of 13 collected purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions. BioMed research international 2014.

Almasoud A.G. and Eman S. 2014. Nutritional Quality of Purslane and its crackers. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences 4(3):448-454.

Asadi Gharneh H. and Reza Hassandokht M. 2008. Chemical composition of some Iranian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) as a leafy vegetable in south parts of Iran. International Symposium on Vegetable Production, Quality and Process Standardization in Chain: a Worldwide Perspective 944(pp. 41-44).

Asma A. and Gindy E. 2017. Chemical, technological and biochemical studies of purslane leaves. Current Science International 6(3):540-551.

Balestra F., Cocci E., Pinnavaia G. and Romani S. 2011. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and bread containing ginger powder. LWT-Food Science and Technology 44(3):700-705.

Bhat R., Liong M.-T., Abdorreza M.N. and Karim A.A. 2013. Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Antioxidant Potential of a Few Popular Green Leafy Vegetables of Malaysia. International Journal of Food Properties 16(6):1371-1379.

Daneshzadeh M.S., Abbaspour H., Amjad L. and Nafchi A.M. 2020. An investigation on phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of extract from Eryngium billardieri F. Delaroche. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 14(2):708-715.

Demin M.A., Vucelic-Radovic B.V., Banjac N.R., Tipsina N.N. and Milovanovic M.M. 2013. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production. Hemijska industrija, 67(1):115-121.

El-Sohaimy S., Shehata M., Mehany T. and Zeitoun M. 2019. Nutritional, physicochemical, and sensorial evaluation of flat bread supplemented with quinoa flour. International journal of food science, 2019.

El Khoury D., Balfour-Ducharme S. and Joye I.J. 2018. A review on the gluten-free diet: technological and nutritional challenges. Nutrients 10(10):1410.

Elgeti D., Nordlohne S.D., Föste M., Besl M., Linden M.H., Heinz V., Jekle M. and Becker T. 2014. Volume and texture improvement of gluten-free bread using quinoa white flour. Journal of Cereal Science 59(1):41-47.

Fathnejhad Kazemi, R., Peighambardoust, H., Azadmard Damirchi, S., Nemati, M., Rafat, A., and Naghavi, S. (2012). The Effect of purslane powder on chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile and sensory quality of bread. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, 7(3), 11-18.

Ganorkar P. and Jain R. 2014. Effect of flaxseed incorporation on physical, sensorial, textural and chemical attributes of cookies. International Food Research Journal 21(4).

Garden-Robinson J. (1993). Flaxseed gum: Extraction, characterization, and functionality. North Dakota State University.

Gewehr M.F., Pagno C.H., Danelli D., Melo L.M.d., Flôres S.H. and Jong E.V.d. 2016. Evaluation of the functionality of bread loaves prepared with quinoa flakes through biological tests. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 52(2):337-346.

Ghanbari M. and Farmani J. 2013. Influence of hydrocolloids on dough properties and quality of barbari: an Iranian leavened flat bread.

Gilbert J. 2002. Evaluation of flax and rice bran on physical and chemical properties of bread for achieving health benefits. MSc Thesis, Purdu University, West Lafayette.

Graham R.D., Welch R.M. and Bouis H.E. 2001. Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps.

Guariguata L., Whiting D.R., Hambleton I., Beagley J., Linnenkamp U. and Shaw J.E. 2014. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes research and clinical practice 103(2):137-149.

Guyot J.P. 2012. Cereal-based fermented foods in developing countries: ancient foods for modern research. International journal of food science and technology 47(6):1109-1114.

Hadi A., Pourmasoumi M., Najafgholizadeh A., Kafeshani M. and Sahebkar A. 2018. Effect of purslane on blood lipids and glucose: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytotherapy Research.

Heenan S.P., Dufour J.-P., Hamid N., Harvey W. and Delahunty C.M. 2008. The sensory quality of fresh bread: Descriptive attributes and consumer perceptions. Food Research International 41(10):989-997.

Hussien H.A. and Salem E.M. 2016. Development of gluten free snacks fortified with Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) powder. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 4(6):136-144.

Iglesias-Puig E., Monedero V. and Haros M. 2015. Bread with whole quinoa flour and bifidobacterial phytases increases dietary mineral intake and bioavailability. LWT-Food Science and Technology 60(1):71-77.

Indrani D., Sakhare S.D., and Inamdar A.A. 2015. Rheological, physico-sensory, nutritional and storage characteristics of bread enriched with roller milled fractions of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.). Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(8):5264-5270.

Inglett G.E., Chen D. and Liu S.X. 2015. Physical properties of gluten-free sugar cookies made from amaranth–oat composites. LWT-Food Science and Technolog, 63(1):214-220.

Kaur R. 2011. Baking and sensory quality of whole wheat and flaxseed based cookies and muffins. PAU Ludhiana.

Koca A.F. and Anil M. 2007. Effect of flaxseed and wheat flour blends on dough rheology and bread quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87(6):1172-1175.

Liu L., Howe P., Zhou Y.-F., Xu Z.-Q., Hocart C. and Zhang R. 2000. Fatty acids and B-carotene in Australian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) varieties. Journal of Chromatography A 893(1):207-213.

MacRitchie F. 2010. Concepts in cereal chemistry: CRC Press.

Marie H. and Ivan Š. 2017. Rheological Characteristics of Composite Flour with Linseed Fibre–Relationship to Bread Quality. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 35(5):424-431.

Mariotti M., Lucisano M. and Pagani M.A. 2006. Development of a baking procedure for the production of oat-supplemented wheat bread.

Melilli M.G., Di Stefano V., Sciacca F., Pagliaro A., Bognanni R., Scandurra, S., Gentile C., Virzì N. and Palumbo M. 2020. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile in Durum Wheat Breads Supplemented with Portulaca oleracea L. Quality Traits of Purslane-Fortified Bread. Food 9(6).

Mervat, E.-D., Mahmoud, K. F., Bareh, G. F., and Albadawy, W. (2015). Effect of fortification by full fat and defatted flaxseed flour sensory properties of wheat bread and lipid profile laste. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci,4(4), 581-598.

Mlakar S.G., Bavec M., Turinek M. and Bavec F. 2009. Rheological properties of dough made from grain amaranth-cereal composite flours based on wheat and spelt. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 27(5):309-319.

Naeem F. and Khan S.H. 2013. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) as phytogenic substance. A review. Journal of herbs, spices and medicinal plants 19(3):216-232.

Nasehi B., Paydar Z., Barzegar H. and Hojjati M. 2018. Study of the effect of adding fenugreek seed flour on properties of flour, dough and barbari bread. Iranian journal of food science and technology 15:123-133.

Salim-ur-Rehman A.M., Bhatti I., Shafique R., Mueen-ud-Din G. and Murtaza M. 2006. Effect of pearling on physico-chemical, rheological characteristics and phytate content of wheat-sorghum flour. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38(3):711-719.

Shittu T.A., Aminu R.A. and Abulude E.O. 2009. Functional effects of xanthan gum on composite cassava-wheat dough and bread. Food Hydrocolloids 23(8):2254-2260.

Stepniewska S., Hassoon W.H., Szafranska A., Cacak-Pietrzak G. and Dziki D. 2019. Procedures for Breadmaking Quality Assessment of Rye Wholemeal Flour. Foods 8(8):331.

Teutonico R.A. and Knorr D. 1985. Amaranth: Composition, properties, and applications of a rediscovered food crop. Food technology (USA).

Uddin M., Juraimi A.S., Hossain M.S., Un A., Ali M. and Rahman M. 2014. Purslane weed (Portulaca oleracea): a prospective plant source of nutrition, omega-3 fatty acid, and antioxidant attributes. The Scientific World Journal 2014.

Whiting D.R., Guariguata L., Weil C. and Shaw J. 2011. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes research and clinical practice 94(3):311-321.

Xu Y., Hall III C.A. and Manthey F.A. 2014. Effect of flaxseed flour on rheological properties of wheat flour dough and on bread characteristics. Journal of Food Research 3(6):83.

Yaseen A.A., Shouk A. and Ramadan M.T. 2010. Corn-wheat pan bread quality as affected by hydrocolloids. Journal of American Science 6(10):684-690.

Yousif A., Nhepera D. and Johnson S. 2012. Influence of sorghum flour addition on flat bread in vitro starch digestibility, antioxidant capacity and consumer acceptability. Food chemistry 134(2):880-887.

Zarei A., Ashtiyani S.C. and Taheri S. 2015. The Effect of the Extract of Portulaca oleracea on Physiological. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal 8(5).