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bitter orange, nano-emulsion, olive oil, salad dressing, surfactant


Olive oil-in-bitter orange juice (O/W) nano-emulsions were prepared by phase inversion composition method at 25 °C. The emulsions were formulated with extra virgin olive oil as an oil phase, bitter orange juice (pH 2.57) as an aqueous phase and binary combinations of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan monooleate, sucrose monopalmitate and sunflower lecithin as surfactants. Visual appearance, transparency, microstructure and particle size distribution of the nano-emulsions were influenced by the surfactant type and concentration. The current study may promote usage of bitter orange for flavoring and acidifying salads via increasing consumer awareness, and to promote being fit with daily diet routines.

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