Main Article Content



dose, lactulose, prebiotic, starter, yoghurt


Therapeutic levels of lactulose were used with commercial starters (Yoflex 801, Yoflex 901 and Yomix 486) in yoghurt. In fact, Yoflex 801 was supplemented with 1.5% lactulose resulting in minor yoghurt quality alterations. This co-culture was retained to study the influence of lactulose levels (0, 4, 6, and 8 %) on yoghurt quality for 28 days at 4°C. Kinetic parameters, syneresis, proteolysis degree, and sensory characteristics were improved by increasing lactulose dose; thus, thixotropic and pseudoplastic gel was shown. Accordingly, functional yoghurt fermented with Yoflex 801, containing 4 to 6% of lactulose, proved to be the most adequate choice.

Abstract 193 | pdf Downloads 230


Adolfsson O., Meydani S. N. and Russell R. M. 2004. Yogurt and gut function. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(2):245-256.

AFNOR. 1980. Lait et produits laitiers: méthodes d’analyse.1st ed. AFNOR, Paris.

Aguirre M., Jonkers M., Troost J., Roeselers G. and Venema K. 2014. In vitro characterization of the impact of different substrates on metabolite production, energy extraction and composition of gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects. PLoS ONE 9 (11)e113864. DOI: doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113864

Aider M. and De Halleux D. 2007. Isomerization of lactose and lactulose production: review. Trends in Food Science and Technology 18:356-364.

Akgun A., Yazici F. and Gulec H.A. 2017. The combined effect of probiotic cultures and incubation final pH on the quality of buffalo milk yoghurt during cold storage. Food science and nutrition 6:492-502.

Almeida K.E., Tamime A.Y. and Oliveira M.N. 2009. Influence of total solids contents of milk whey on the acidifying profile and viability of various lactic acid bacteria. LWT Food Science and Technology 42:672-678.

Amatayakul T., Sherkat F. and Shah N.P. 2006. Syneresisin yoghurt as affected by EPS starters and levels of solids. International Journal of Dairy Technology 59:216-222.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis’, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC USA.

AOAC.1995. Fat, lactose, protein and solids in milk. Official methods of analysis 16thed. 972-16 Washington, DC USA.

Aryana K.J. and Mc Grew P. 2007. Quality attributes of yoghurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics. LWT-Food Science and Technology 40:1808-1814.

Balthazar C.F., Silva H.L.A., Cavalcanti R.N., Esmerino E.A., Cappato L.P., Abud Y.K.D., Moraes J., Andrade M.M., Freitas M.Q., Sant’Anna C., Raices R.S.L., Silva M.C. and Cruz A.G. 2017. Prebiotics addition in sheep milk ice cream: A rheological, microstructural and sensory study. Journal of Functional Foods 35:564-573.

Béal C., Skokanova J., Latrille E., Martin N. and Corrieu G. 1999. Combined Effects of Culture Conditions and Storage Time on Acidification and Viscosity of Stirred Yogurt.Journal of dairy science 82:673-681.

Belsito P.C., Ferreira M.V.S., Cappato L.P., Cavalcanti R.N., Vidal V.A.S, Pimentel T.C., Esmerino E.A., Balthazar C.F., Neto R.P.C., Tavares M.I.B., Zacarchenco P.B., Freitas M. Q., Silva R.S.L., Raices M.C., Pastore G.M., Pollonio M.A.R. and Cruz A.G. 2017. Manufacture of Requeijão cremoso processed cheese with galacto-oligosaccharide. Carbohydrate Polymers 174:869-875.

Bothe M., MaathuisA., Bellmann S., Van der Vossen J., Berressem D., Koehler A., Schwejda-Guettes S. andGaigg Bkand Stover J. 2017. Prebiotic Effect of Lactulose in a Computer-Controlled In Vitro Model of the Human Large Intestine. Nutrients 67:1-14.

Boulares M., Mankai M. and Hassouna M. 2011. Effect of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide on the keeping quality of ovine bovine and caprine raw milk. International journal of dairy technology 64:52-65.

Çelik E.S. 2007. Determination of aroma compounds and exopolysaccharide formation by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional yoghurts [Dissertation]. Izmir, Turkey: Izmir Institute of Technology pp.78 Available from: Izmir Institute of Technology, SF275.Y6 C3928.

Ciron C.I.E, Gee V.L., Kelly A.L., Mark A.E. and Auty M.A.E. 2012. Modifying the microstructure of low-fat yoghurt by microfluidisation of milk at different pressures to enhance rheological and sensory properties. Food Chemistry 130:510-519.

CODEX STAN 243-2003. Codex Alimentarius WHO/FAO. Codex standard for fermented milks.

Cruz A.G., Castro W.F., Faria J.A.F., Bolini H.M.A., Celeghini R.M.S., Raices R.S.L., Oliveira C.A.F., Freitas M.Q., Conte Júnior C.A. and Mársico E.T. 2013a. Stability of probiotic yogurt added with glucose oxidase in plastic materials with different permeability oxygen rates during the refrigerated storage. Food Research International 51:723-728.

Cruz A.G., Cavalcanti R.N., Guerreiro L.M.R., Sant’Ana A.S., Nogueira L.C., Oliveira C.A.F., Deliza R., Cunha R.L., Faria J.A.F. and Bolini H.M.A. 2013b. Developing a prebiotic yogurt: rheological, physico-chemical and microbiological aspects and adequacy of survival analysis methodology. Journal of food engineering 114:323-330.

Cui B., Lu Y.M., Tan C.P., Wang G.Q. and Li G.H. 2014. Effect of cross-Linked acetylated starch content of the structure and stability of set yoghurt. Food Hydrocolloids 35:576-582.

Dantas A.B., Jesus V.F., Silva R., Almada C.N., Esmerino E.A., Cappato L.P., Silva M.C., Raices R.S.L., Cavalcanti R.N., Carvalho C.C., Sant’Ana A.S., Bolini H.M.A., Freitas M.Q. and Cruz A.G. 2016. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Journal of dairy science 99:1-13.

De Castro F.P., Cunha T.M., Barreto P.L.M., Amboni R.D.M.C. and Prudêncio E.S.2008. Effect of oligofructose incorporation on the properties of fermented probiotic lactic beverages. International Journal of Dairy Technology 62:74-82.

Delgado G., Tamashiro W., Maróstica M., Moreno Y. and Pastore G. 2011. The putative effects of prebiotics as immunomodulatory agents.Food Research International 44:3167-3173. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.07.032

Donkor O.N., Nilmini S.L.I., Stolic P., Vasiljevic T. and Shah N.P.2007. Survival and activity of selected probiotic organisms in set type yoghurt during cold storage. International Dairy Journal17:657-665.

Duncan R., Hubert R., Margaret B. and Peter R. 2008. Determination of a nitrogen conversion factor for protein content in Cheddar cheese. International Dairy Journal 18:216-220.

Espírito-Santo A.P., Lagazzo A., Sousa A.L.O.P., Perego P., Converti A. and Oliveira M.N. 2013. Rheology, spontaneous whey separation, microstructure and sensorial characteristics of probiotic yoghurts enriched with passion fruit fiber. Food Research International 50:224-231.

Estevez A., Mejía J., Figuerola F. and Escobar B. 2009. Effect of solid content and sugar combinations on the quality of soymilk-based yogurt. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34:87-97.

Ferrão L.L., Silva E.B., Silva H.L.A., Silva R., Mollakhalili N., Granato D., Freitas M.Q., Silva M.C., Raices R.S.L., Padilha M.C., Zacarchenco P.B., Barbosa M.I.M.J., Mortazavian A.M. and Cruz A.G. 2016: Strategies to develop healthier processed cheeses: Reduction of sodium and fat contents and use of prebiotics. Food Research International 86:93-102.

Ferrão L.L., Ferreira M.V.S., Cavalcanti R.N., Carvalho A.F.A., Pimentel T.C., Silva R., Esmerino E.A., Neto R.P.C., Tavares L.M., Freitas M.Q., Menezes J.C.V., Cabral L.M., Moraes J., Silva M.C., Mathias S.P., Raices R.S.L., Pastore G.M. and Cruz A.G. 2018. The xylooligosaccharide addition and sodium reduction in requeijão cremoso processed cheese. Food Research International 107:137-147.

Fric P. 2007. Probiotics and prebiotics renaissance of a therapeutic principle. Central European Journal of Medicine 2:237-270.

Ganzle G. and Follador R. 2012. Metabolism of oligosaccharides and starch in lactobacilli: A Review. Frontiers in Microbiology 3:1-15.

Garcia A., Olmo B., Lopez?Gonzalvez A., Cornejo L., Ruperez F.J. and Barbas C. 2008. Capillary electrophoresis for short chain organic acids in faeces. References values in a Mediterranean elderly population. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.46:356-361.

Gibson G.R., Hutkins R., Sanders M.E., Prescott S.L., Reimer R.A., Salminen S.J., Scott K., Catherine Stanton C., Swanson K.S., CaniP D., Verbeke k. and Reid G. 2017. International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 14:491-502.

Guimaraes J.T., Silva E.K., Rodrigues Costa A.L., Cunha R.L., Freitas M.Q., Meireles M.A.A. and Cruz A.G. 2018. Manufacturing a prebiotic whey beverage exploring the influence of degree of inulin polymerization. Food Hydrocolloids 77:787-795.

Guiraud J.P. 1998. Microbiologie alimentaire, 2nd ed. DunodParis.

Hassouna M., Mankai M., Manai M., Baccar M. and Guizani N.1999. Evolution de la maturation d’un fromage industriel tunisien à pâte pressée non cuite: caractéristiques microbiologiques, physico-chimiques et biochimiques. Industries Alimentaires et Agricoles 116:33-42.

Haydari S., Mortazavian A.M., Ehsani M.R., Mohammadifar M. and Ezzapanah H. 2011: Biochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of prebiotic yogurt containing various prebiotic compounds. Italian Journal of Food Science 23:153-163.

Hernandez-Hernandez O., Muthaiyan A., Moreno F.J., Montilla A., Sanz M.L. and Ricke S.C. 2012. Effect of prebiotic carbohydrates on the growth and tolerance of Lactobacillus. Food Microbiology 30:355-361.

Hootman R.C. 1992: Manual on descriptive analysis testing for sensory evaluation. PA: ASTM Philadelphia.

Ibrahim A.H. 2015. Effects of exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures on physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of fermented camel’s milk. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 27(4):374-383.

Ilicic M.D., Milanovic S.D., Caric M.D., Dokic L.P. and Kanuric K.G. 2013. Effect of transglutaminase on texture and flow properties of stirred probiotic yoghurt during storage. Journal of Texture Studies 45:13-19.

Lawless T. and Heymann H. 2010. Sensory evaluation of food principles and practices, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag New York Inc, New York, USA.

Lee-Robichaud H., Thomas K., Morgan J. and Nelson R.L. 2010. actulose versus Polyethylene Glycol for Chronic Constipation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7: CD007570.

Lourens-Hattingh A. and Viljoen B. C. 2001. Yogurt as probiotic carrier food. International Dairy Journal 11:1-17.

Loveday S.M., Sarkar A. and Sing H. 2013. Innovative yoghurts: novel processing technologies for improving acid milk gel texture. Food Science and Technology 33:5-20.

Mann J., Cummings J., Englyst H., Key T., Liu S., Riccardi G., Summerbell C., Uauy R., Van Dam R., Venn B., Vorster H. and Wiseman M. 2007.FAO/WHO scientific update on carbohydrates in human nutrition: conclusions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61:132-137.

Meilgaard M.C., Carr B.T. and Civille G.V. 2006. Sensory evaluation techniques. CRC press.

Mende S., Rohm H. and Jaros D. 2016. Influence of exopolysaccharides on the structure, texture, stability and sensory properties of yoghurt and related products. International Dairy Journal 52:57-71.

Mizota T., Mori T., Yaeshima T., Yanagida T., Iwatsuki K., Ishibashi N., Tamura Y. and Fukuwatari Y. 2002. Effects of low dosages of lactulose on the intestinal function of healthy adults. Milchwissenschaft 57:312-315.

Möller C. and De Vrese M. 2004. Review: probiotic effects of selected acid bacteria. Milchwissenschaft 59:597-601.

Nguyen N.T.H., Ong L., Kentish S.E. and Gras S.L. 2015. Homogenisation improves the microstructure, syneresis and rheological properties of Buffalo yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 46:78-87.

Nicholson J. K., Holmes E., Kinross J., Burcelin R., Gibson G., Jia W. and Petterson S. 2012. Host?gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Science 336:1262-1267

Nielsen M.S., Martinussen T., Flambard B., Sørensen K. and Otte J. 2009. Peptide profiles and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of fermented milk products: Effects of bacterial strain, fermentation pH, and storage time. International Dairy Journal 19:155-165.

Olano A. and Corzo N. 2009. Lactulose as a food ingredient. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89:1987–1990.

Özer D., Akin S. and Özer B. 2005. Effect of inulin and lactulose on survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum bb-02 in Acidophilus-bifidus yogurt. Food Science and Technology International11:19-14.

Pham T.T. and Shah N.P. 2008. Effects of lactulose supplementation on the growth of bifidobacteria and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavoneaglycones in soymilk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:4703-4709.

Rafter J., Bennett M., Caderni G., Clune Y., Hughes R., Karlsson P.C., Klinder A., O'Riordan M., O'Sullivan G.C., Pool-Zobel B., Rechkemmer G., Roller M., Rowland I., Salvadori M., Thijs H., Van Loo J., Watzl B. and Collins J.K. 2007. Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85:488-96.

Rastall R.A. and Maitin V. 2002. Prebiotics and synbiotics: towards the next generation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 13(5):490-496.

ReidG., Sanders M. E., Gaskins H. R., Gibson G. R., Mercenier A., Rastall R., Roberfroid M., Rowland I., Cherbut C., Klaenhammer T.R. 2003. New scientific paradigms for probiotics and prebiotics. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 37:105-118.

Rinaldoni N., Campderrós E., Menéndez C. and Pérez P. 2009. Fractionation of skim-milk by an integrated membrane process for yogurt elaboration and lactose recuperation. International Journal of Food Engineering 92(2):226-232.

Roberfroid M.B. 2000. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71:1682-1687.

Rolim P.M. 2015. Development of prebiotic food products and health benefits. Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 35:3-10.

Sah B.N.P., Vasiljevic T., McKechnie S., Donkor O.N. 2016. Physicochemical, textural and rheological properties of probiotic yogurt fortified with fibre-rich pineapple peel powder during refrigerated storage. Food Science and Technology 65:978-986.

Schaafsma G. 2008. Lactose and lactose derivatives as bioactive ingredients in human nutrition. International Dairy Journal 18: 458-465.

Seydin Z.B.G., Sarikus G., and Okur O.D. 2005. Effect of inulin and Dairy-Lo as fat replacers on the quality of set type yogurt. Milchwissenschaf. 60:51-55.

Silva H.L.A., Balthazar C.F., Silva R., Vieira A.H., Costa R.G.B., Esmerino E.A., Freitas M.Q. and Cruz A.G. 2018. Sodium reduction and flavor enhancer addition in probiotic prato cheese: Contributions of quantitative descriptive analysis and temporal dominance of sensations for sensory profiling. Journal of dairy Science 101:1-10.

Steffe J.F. 1996. Rheological methods in food engineering, East Lansing, 2nd ed, USA: Freeman Press.

Tabatabaie F. and Mortazavi A. 2008. Influence of lactulose on the survival of probiotic strains in yogurt. World Applied Sciences Journal 3:88-90.

Wang Y. 2009. Prebiotics: present and future in food science and technology. Food Research International 42:8-12.

Weerathilake W.A.D.V.,Rasika D.M.D., Ruwanmali J.K.U. and Munasinghe M.A.D.D. 2014. The evolution, processing, varieties and health benefits of yogurt. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 4:1-10.

Westhoff G.M., Kuster B.F.M., Heslinga M.C., Pluim H. and Verhage M. 2000. Lactose and derivatives. InUllmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. DOI:doi.org/10 1002/14356007.a15-107.

Yüksel Z. and Erdem Y.K. 2010. The influence of transglutaminase treatment on functional properties of set yogurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology 63:86-97.