Main Article Content



physicochemical, storage, thermosonication, vitamin C, waste, watermelon rind


This study addressed the recent interest in utilizing waste as source of natural food product to builda safer environment. The sample used was watermelon rind, a by-product of an edible fruit, often ignored for its bland taste. Thermosonication is a method of treating food beverage to improve product quality, but its effects, specifically on rind beverage has not been extensively studied. This study determined the effects of temperature and time (optimization using Response Surface Methodology) on the physicochemical, vitamin C content and microbial load of rind beverages stored under different temperatures for a week. Thermosonication at 65 ºC for 60 min significantly affected juice separation  (stored under 4 ºC in a week)  (11.3%), TSS (12.9  °Brix), the total color difference value (1.7) and microbial load (6.2 log CFU/mL).  Themosonicated rind juice can be stored longer at temperature below  4ºC, which is beneficial to both the consumers and the country at large.

Abstract 244 | pdf Downloads 285


Aadil, R.M., Zeng, X.A., Zhang, Z.H., Wang, M.S., Han, Z., Jing, H. and Jabbar, S. 2015. Thermosonication: a potential technique that influences the quality of grapefruit juice. Wiley Online Library. 50(5):1275-1282.

Abdullah, N. and Chin, N.L. 2014. Application of thermosonication treatment in processing and production of high quality and safety-to-drink fruit juice. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 2:320-327.

Abid, M., Jabbar, S., Wu, T., Hashim, M. M., Hu, B., Lei, S., Zhang, X. and Zeng, X. 2013. Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice. UltrasonicsSonochemistry. 20(5):1182-1187.

Abid, M., Jabbar, S., Hu, B., Hashim, M.M., Wu, T., Lei, S., Khan, M.A. and Zenf, X. 2014. Thermosonication as a potential quality enhancement technique of apple juice. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21(3):984-990.

Adekunte, A.O., Tiwari, B.K., Cullen, P.J., Scannell, A.G.M. and O’Donnell, C. P. 2010. Effect of sonication on colour, ascorbic acid and yeast inactivation in tomato juice. Food Chemistry122(3):500-507.

Aguilar, K., Garvin, A., Ibarz, A. and Augusto, P.E.D. 2017. Ascorbic acid stability in fruit juices during thermosonication. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 37:375-381.

Al-Sayed, H.M. and Ahmed, A.R. 2013. Utilization of watermelon rinds and sharlyn melon peels as a natural source of dietary fiber and antioxidants in cake. Annals of Agricultural Science58(1):83-95.

Assawarachan, R. and Noomhorn, A. 2010. Changes in colour and rheological behavior of pineapple concentrate through various evaporation methods. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 3(1):74-84.

Awad, T. S., Moharram, H. A., Shaltout, O. E., Asker, D. and Youssef, M. M. 2012. Applications of ultrasound in analysis, processing and quality control of food: a review. Food Research International 48(2):410-427.

Basmaci, I. 2017. Effect of ultrasound and high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) on liquefaction and quality parameters of selected honey varieties. Middle East Technical University.

Bhardwaj, R.L. and Mukherjee. 2010. Effects of fruit juice bending ratios on kinnow juice preservation at ambient storage condition. Department of Horticulture (PHT), Sri Karan Narendra (S.K.N.) College of Agriculture, Jobner- 303329 (Rajasthan) India.

Bhat, R., Kamaruddin, N.S.C., Min-Tze, L. and Karim, A.A. 2011. Sonicaton improves kasturi lime (Citrus microcarpa) juice quality. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry18(6):1295-1300.

Bogdanov, S., Jurendic, T., Sieber, R. and Gallman, P. 2008. Honey for nutrition and health: a review. Journal of American College of Nutrition 27(6):677-689.

Cervantes-Elizarraras, A., Piloni-Martini, J., Ramirez-Moreno, E., Alanis-Garcia, E., Guemes-Vera, N., Gomez-Aldapa, C. A.,Zafra-Rojas, Q. Y. and Cruz-Casino, N. 2017. Enzymatic inactivation and antioxidant properties of blackberry juice after thermoultrasound: Optimization using response surface methodology.Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 34:371-379.

Cheng, L.H., Soh, C.Y., Liew, S.C. and Teh, F.F. 2007. Effects of sonication and carbonation on guava juice quality. Food Chemistr. 104(4):1396-1401.

Chowdhury, P. and Viraraghavan, T. 2009. Sonochemical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenoli ompounds and organic dyes-a review. Science of the Total Environment407:2474-2492.

Corliss, J. 2016. Eating too much added sugar increases the risk of dying with heart disease. Harvard Health Publishing.

Cruz-Casino, N.S., Ramirez-Moreno, E., Leon-Rivera, J.E., Delgado-Olivares, L., Alanis-Garcia, E., Ariza-Ortega, J. A., Manriquez-Torres, J. and Jaramillo-Bustos, D.P. 2015. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 27:277-286.

D’Arcy, B. 2017. High-power ultrasound to control honey crystallization. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Australian Government, Australia. 7(145):1-12.

De-Leon, J.R. and Boak, M.G. 1984. Method for preventing separation in fruit juice containing products U.S patent, 4,433,000, February 29.

Demirdöven, A. and Baysal, T. 2008. The use of ultrasound and combined technologies in food preservation. Food Reviews International.25:1-11.

Dias, D.R.C., Barros, Z.M.P., Carvalho, C.B.O., Honorato, F.A., Guerra, N.B. and Azoubel, P.M. 2015. Effect of sonication on soursop juice quality. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 62(1):883-889.

Dubrovic, I., Herceg, Z., Rezek, A., Badanjar, M. and Dragovic-Uzelac, V. 2011. Effect of high intensity ultrasound and pasteurization on anthocyanin content in strawberry juice. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 49:196-204.

El-Badry, N., El-Waseif, M.A., Badr, S.A. and Ali, H.E. 2014. Effect of addition of watermelon rind powder on the rheological, physiochemical and sensory quality attributes of pan bread. Middle East J. Appl. Sci. 4:1046-1051.

Ercan, S.S. and Soysal, C. 2010. Effect of ultrasound and temperature on tomato peroxidase. Ultrasonics Sonohemistry. 18(2):689-695.

Eskin, N.A.M. 1979. Plant pigments, flavors and textures: the chemistry and biochemistry of selected compounds. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

FMC Technologies Inc. 2005. Procedures for analysis of citrus products.

Fila, W.A., Itam, E.H., Johnson, J.T.,Odey, M.O., Effiong, E.E., Dasofunjo, K., and Ambo, E.E. 2013. Comparative proximate compositions of watermelon Citrullus lanatus, squash Cucurbita pepo’l and rambutan Nephelium lappaceum. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2(1):81-88.

Fonteles, T.V., Costa, M.G.A., Jesus, A.L.T., Miranda, M.R.A., Fernandes, F.A.N., and Rodrigues, S. 2012. Power ultrasound processing of cantaloupe melon juice: Effects on quality parameters. FoodResearch International. 48(1):41-48

Food and Drug Administration. 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual.

Gamboa, J., Montilla, A., Soria, A. C., and Villamiel, M. 2012. Effects of conventional and ultrasound blanching on enzyme inactivation and carbohydrate content of carrots. European Food Research and Technology. 234(6).

Genovese, D.B., Elustondo, M.P. and Lozano, J.E. 2006. Colour and cloud stabilization in cloudy apple juice by steam heating during crushing. Journal of Food Science. 62(6):1171-1175.

Giner, M.J., Hizaro, O., Marti, N., Saura, D. and Valero, M. 2013. Novel approaches to reduce brown pigment formation and colour changes in thermal pasteurized tomato juice. Euroean Food Research and Technology. 236(3):507-515.

Hart, E. J. and Henglein, A. 1985. Free radical and free atom reactions in the sonolysis of aqueous iodide and formate solutions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 89(20):4342-4347.

Herceg, Z., Lelas, V., Jambrak, A. R., Vukusic, T. and Levaj, B. 2013. Influence of thermosonication on mcrobiological safety, colour and anthocyanins content of strawberry juice. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design. 4(1):26-37.

Ho, L. and Darci, N.C. 2016. Effect of watermelon rind powder on physicochemical, textural and sensoryproperties of wet yellow noodles. CyTA-Journal of Food. 14(3):465-472.

Holtung, L., Grimer, S. and Aabt, K. 2011. Effects of processing of black currant press-residue on polyphenol composition and cell proliferation, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(8):3632-3640.

Horwitz, W. and Latimer, G.W. 2006. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international (ed. 18th). Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Hui, Y.H., Barta, J., Cano, M.P., Gusek, T.W., Sidhu, J.W. and Sinha, H. 2006. Editors. Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing, Blackwell Publishing.

Ibarz, A., Pagan, J., Panades, R. and Garza, S. 2005. Photochemical destruction of colour compounds in fruit juices. Journal of Food Engineering. 69(2):155-160.

Kays, S. J. 1999. Pre-harvest factors affecting appearance. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 15(3):233-247.

Khandpur, P. and Gogate, P.R. 2016. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 29:337-353.

Knorr, D., Froehling, A., Jaeger, H., Reineke, K., Schlueter, O. and Schoessler, K. 2011. Emerging technologies in food processing. ANNUAL review of Food Science and Technology. 2:203-235.

Krushna, N.S.A., Kowsalya, A., Radha, S. and Narayanan, R.B. 2007. Honey as natural preservative of milk. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 45:459-464.

Lee, H., Zhou, B., Liang, W., Feng, H. and Martin, S.E. 2009. Inactivation of Escherichia coli cells with sonication, manosonication, thermosonication and manothermosonication: Microbial responses and kinetics modelling. Journal of Food Engineering. 93:354-364.

Leong, L.P. and Shui, G. 2002. An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chemistry. 76(1):69-75.

Lewinsohn, E., Sitrit, Y., Bar, E., Azulay, Y., Ibdah, M., Meir, A., Yosef, E., Zamir, D. and Tadmor, Y. 2005. Not just colours-carotenoid degradation as a link between pigmentation and aroma in tomato and watermelon fruit. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 16(9):407-415.

Mandal, M. D. and Mandal, S. 2011. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 1(2):154-160.

Moo-Huchin, V. M., Moo-Huchin, M. I., Estrada-León, R.J., Cuevas-Glory, L., Estrada-Morta, I. A., Ortiz-Vázquez, E., Betancur-Ancona, D. and Sauri-Duch, E. 2015. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico. Food Chemistry. 166:17-22.

Morais, P.L.D., Sarmento, J.D.A., Souza, F.I. and Miranda, M.R.A. 2015. Physical-chemical characteristics and antioxidant potential of seed and pulp of Ximenia americana L. from the semiarid region of Brazil. African Journal of Biotechnology. 14 (20):1743-1752.

Naknaen, P., Itthisopponkul, T., Sondee, A. and Angsombat, N. 2016. Utilization of watermelon rind waste as a potential source of dietary fiber to improve health promoting properties and reduce glycemicindex for cookiemaking. Food Science and Biotechnology. 25(2):415-424.

Nayak, P.K., Rayaguru, K. and Radha Krishnan, K. 2017. Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high-pressure processing and thermal treatment.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97:1404-1411.

Nonga, H.E., Simforian, E.A. and Ndabikunze, B.K. 2014. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dares Salaam City, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 16(4).

Oms-Oliu, G., Odriozola-Serrano, I., Soliva-Fortuny, R. and Martin-Belloso, O. 2009. Effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field processing conditions on lycopene, Vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of watermelon juice. Food Chemistry. 115(4):1312-1319.

Pathare, P.B., Opara, U.L. and Al-Said, F.A.J. 2013. Colour measurement and analysis in fresh and processed foods: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 6(1):36-60.

Patist, A. and Bates, D. 2008. Ultrasonic innovations in the food industry. From the laboratory to commercial production. Innovative Food Science and Technologies. 9:147-154.

Pearson, D. 1995. Laboratory techniques in food analysis. Butterworth, London.

Petkowitcz, C.L.O., Vriesmann, L.C. and Williams, P.A. 2017. Pectins from food waste: Extraction, characterization and properties of watermelon rind pectin. Food Hydrocolloids. 65:57-67.

Polydera, A.C., Stoforos, N.G., and Taoukis, P.S. 2003. Comparative shelf-life study and vitamin C loss kinetics in pasteurized and high pressure processed reconstituted orange juice. Journal of Food Engineering. 60:21-29.

Puttongsiri, T. and Haruenkit, R. 2010. Changes in ascorbic acid, total polyphenol, phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in juice extracted from coated kiew wan tangerine during storage at 4, 12 and 20°C. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science). 44:280-289.

Quintero-Lira, A., Angeles Santos, A., Aguirre-Alvarez, G., Reyes-Munguia, A., Almaraz-Buendia, I. and Campos-Montiel, R.G. 2017. Effects of liquefying crystallizedhoney by ultrasound on crystal size, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, colour, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. European Food Research and Technology. 243(4):619-626.

Rabie, M.A., Soliman, A.Z., Diaconeasa, Z.S., and Constantin, B. 2015. Effect of pasteurization and shelf-life on the physicochemical properties of Physalis (Physalis peruviana L.) juice. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 39:1051-1060.

Ramírez-Monero, E., Zafra-Rojas, Q.Y., Arias-Rico, J., Ariza-Ortega, J.A., Alanís-García, E. and Cruz-Cansino, N. 2017. Effect of ultrasound on microbiological load and antioxidant properties of blackberry juice. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 42(2):e13489.

Rawson, A., Tiwari, B.K., Patras, A., Brunton, N., Brennan, C., Cullen, P.J. and O’Donnell, C. 2011. Effect of thermosonication on bioactive compounds in watermelon juice. Food Research International. 44(5):1168-1173.

Reddy, A., Norris, D.F., Momeni, S.S., Waldo, B. and Ruby, J.D. 2016. The pH of beverages available to the American consumer. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 147 (4):255-263.

Rimando, A.M. and Perkins-Veazie, P.M. 2005. Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind. Journal of Chromatography A. 1078(1-2): 196-200.

Romdhane, M.B., Haddar, A., Ghazala, I., Jeddou, K.B., Helbert, C.B. and Ellouz-Chaabouni, S. 2017. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities. Food Chemistry. 216:355-364.

Ruiz-Gutiérrez, M.G., Amaya-Guerra, C.A., Quintera-Ramos, A., Ruiz-Anchondo,T.D., Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A., Baez-González, J.G., and Campos-Venegas, K. 2014. Effect of soluble fiber on the physicochemical properties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) encapsulated using spray drying. Food Science and Biotechnology. 23(3):755-763.

Sabeetha, S., Amin, I., and Nisak, M.Y.B. 2017. Physicochemical characteristics of watermelon in Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science. 45(2):209-223.

Sala, F.J., Burgos, J, Condon, S., Lopez, P., and Raso, J. 1995. Effect of heat and ultrasound on microorganisms and enzymes. G.W. Gould (Ed). New Methods of Food Preparation, Unilever Research Laboratory Press, London, pp. 176-204.

Santhirasegaram, V., Razali, Z. and Somasundram, C. 2013. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 20(5):1276-1282.

Santos, C.M., Abren, C.M.P., Freire, J.M., Queiroz, E.R., and Mendonca, M.M. 2014. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two pawpaw cultivars. Food Science and Technology. 34 (2):353-357.

Seow, W.K. and hong, K.M. 2005.Erosive effects of common beverages on extracted premolar teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 50(3):173-178.

Singh, K. and Mathur, P.B. 1983. Studies in the cold storage of cashew apple. Indian Journal Horticulture. 10:115-121.

Snowdon, J.A. and Cliver D.O. 1996. Microorganisms in honey. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 13: 1.

Tasnim, F., Anwar, H.M, Nusrath, S., Kamal, H.M., Lopa, D. and Formuzul, H.K.M. 2010. Quality assessment of industrially processed fruit juices available in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition. 16:431-438.

Terefe, N. S., Gamage, M., Vilkhu, K., and Simons, L. 2009. The kinetics of inactivation of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase in tomato juice by thermosonication. Food Chemistry. 117(1):20-27.

Thangavadivel, K, Megharaj, M., Mudhoo, A. and Naidu, R. 2012. Degradation of organic pollutants using ultrasound. In: Chen, D., Sharma, S.K. and Mudhoo, A. (eds). Handbook on application of ultrasound: sonochemistry for sustainability. CC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.

Tiwari, B.K., Muthukumarappan, K., O’Donnell, C.P. and Cullen, P.J. 2008. Colour degradation and quality parameters of sonicated orange juice using response surface methodology. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 41(10):1876-1883.

Tlili, I., Hdider, C., Lenucci, M.S., Riadh, I., Jebari, H., and Dalessandro, G. 2011. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of different watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars as affected by fruit sampling area. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 24.

Tomadoni, B., Cassani, L., Viacava, G., Mpreira, M.D.R. and Ponce, A. 2017. Effect of ultrasound and storage time on quality attributes of strawberry juice. Journal of Food Processing Engineering. 40(5).

Wang, H., Hu, X., Chen, F., Wu, J., Zhang, Z., Liao, X and Wang, Z. 2005. Kinetic analysis of non-enzymatic browning in carrot juice concentrate during storage. European Food Research and Technology. 223(2):282-289.

Walking-Ribeiro, M., Noci, F., Riener, J., Cronin, D.A., Lyng, J.G. and Morgan, D.J. 2009. The impact of thermosonication and pulsed electric fields on Staphylococcus aureus inactivation and selected quality parameters in orange juice. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2:422-430.

White, J.B. 1978. Honey. Advance Food Science. 24:7.

Wu, Y., Qian, Y., Pan, Y., Li, P., Yang, J, Ye, X., Xu, G. 2015. Association between dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. Clinical Nutrition. 34:603-611.

Yau, E. W., Rosnah, S., Noraziah, M., Chin, N. L., and Osman, H. 2010. Physicochemical compositions of the red seedless watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). International Food 776 Research Journal. 17(2):327-334.

Zou, J. and Jiang, A. 2016. Effect of ultrasound treatment on quality and microbial load of carrot juice. Food Science and Technology. 36(1).