Nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory properties of innovative onion pie produced from whole wheat flour, carob beans flour, onion, scallions, and roasted Seaweeds

Main Article Content

Rehab F. M. Ali
Ayman M. El-Anany


antioxidants, carob, diet, food intake, functional properties, onion, phenolic, pie


Snack foods have experienced substantial growth in consumption globally, appealing to various age groups and becoming a significant segment of the food industry. The current investigation aimed to assess the nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory characteristics of an unconventional pie prepared from brown wheat flour(BWF), carob bean flour (CBF), onion, scallions, and roasted seaweeds. Chemical composition, minerals content, functional properties, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidants activity (DPPH), and phenolic profile of CBF, BWF, and binary combinations were evaluated. Five pies using different formulas (CGR0, CGR1, CGR2, CGR3, CGR4, and CGR5) were developed, where CGR0 serving as the control sample with 100% BWF. The other formulations (CGR1–CGR5) are binary combinations of BWF and CBF at various ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50%). The onion pie samples were assayed for proximate composition, minerals, and sensory properties. CBF is rich in dietary fibers, with a content of 12.73%, substantial ash (4.79%), and carbohydrates (74.36%). Blending BWF with CBF significantly enhances the functional properties of the mixture, as indicated by improved WAC, AOC, EA, and FC compared to BWF. The addition of CBF into BWF in produced pie recipes led to significant increases in Fat, fiber, and ash. Additionally, substituting BWF with CBF in pie samples led to substantial decreases in carbohydrate content. The highest content of micro- and macro-elements was found in CGR5 samples, whereas the lowest was found in control samples CGR0. The results found that incorporating CBF into onion pie samples at levels between 10% to 40% can positively impact the sensory acceptability of the produced pie samples.

Abstract 48 | PDF Downloads 31 HTML Downloads 0 XML Downloads 3


Adegunwa M.O., Fafiolu O.F., Adebowale A.A., Bakare H.A., and Alamu E.O. (2018) Snack food from unripe plantain and orange vesicle composite flour: Nutritional and sensory properties. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 17, 491–506. 10.1080/15428052.2018.1491917

Ajayi I.O., Otemuyiwa I.O., Adeyanju A.A., and Falade O.S. (2021) Vegetable polyphenols inhibit starch digestibility and phenolic availability from composite carbohydrate foods in-vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 3, 100116. 10.1016/J.JAFR.2021.100116

AlAli M., Alqubaisy M., Aljaafari M.N., AlAli A.O., Baqais L., Molouki A., et al. (2021). Nutraceuticals: transformation of conventional foods into health promoters/disease preventers and safety considerations. Molecules, 26(9), 2540. 10.3390/molecules26092540

Almanza O., Rodriguez-Perez A., and DeSaja, J.A. (2004). Measurement of the thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of polyethylene foams using the transient plane source technique. Polymer International, 53(12), 2038–2044. 10.1002/PI.1624

Alamir N.F., Preedy V.R. (2013). Diet Quality: Setting the Scene, in: Preedy, V., Hunter, LA., Patel, V. (eds) Diet Quality. Nutrition and Health. Humana Press, New York, NY. 10.1007/978-1-4614-7339-8_1

Ali, R.F.M. (2024) Quality evaluation of snack bars prepared using different proportions of Khudri dates and fried green lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Cogent Food & Agriculture, 10(1). 10.1080/23311932.2023.2300880

Ali R.F.M., El-Anany A.M., Mousa H.M., and Hamad E.M. (2020) Nutritional and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with roasted prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) seed four. Food & Function, 11(3), 2117–2125. 10.1039/C9FO02532D

Ali R.F.M., Althwab S.A., Alfheeaid H.A., El-Anany A.M., Alhomaid R.M., Alharbi H.F. (2022). Nutritional and quality characteristics of wheat bread fortified with different levels of soaked–dehulled moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seeds powder”. British Food Journal, 124(5). 10.1108/BFJ-06-2021-0697

Aljefree N. M., Shatwan I. M., and Almoraie N. M. (2022) Impact of the intake of snacks and lifestyle behaviors on obesity among university students living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Healthcare (Basel), 21, 10(2):400. 10.3390/healthcare10020400

Althwab S.A., Alhomaid R.M., Ali R.F.M., El-Anany A.M., and Mous, H.M. (2021) Effect of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) powder incorporation on nutritional and sensorial properties of wheat flour bread. British Food Journal, 123(11). 10.1108/BFJ-11-2020-1052

Amare G. (2020) Review on mineral nutrition of onion (Allium cepa L). The Open Biotechnology Journal, 14(1), 134-144. 10.2174/1874070702014010134

Anggraeni A. A., Triwitono P., Lestari L.A., Harmayani E. (2023) Functional characteristics of composite flour made from fermented cassava flour and soy protein concentrate containing porang glucomannan. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1168, 012040. 10.1088/1755-1315/1168/1/012040

Antoniou C., Kyriacou M.C., Kyratzis A.C., Rouphael Y. (2023) Linking colorimetric variation with non-volatile and volatile components of carob flour. Foods, 12(13), 2556. 10.3390/foods12132556

AOAC. (2012) Official Methods of Analysis, 19th edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Rockville, MD.

Avallone R., Plessi M., Baraldi M., Monzani A. (1997) Determination of chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua): protein, fat, carbohydrates, and tannins. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis,10, 166–172. 10.1006/jfca.1997.0528

Basharat Z., Afzaal M., Saeed F. et al. (2023) Nutritional and functional profile of carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua): a comprehensive review. International Journal of Food Properties, 26(1), 389–413. 10.1080/10942912.2022.2164590

Benítez V., Mollá E., Martín-Cabrejas, M. A., Aguilera Y., López-Andréu F. J., Esteban R.M. (2012). Onion (Allium cepa L.) by-products as source of dietary fiber: physicochemical properties and effect on serum lipid levels in high-fat fed rats. European Food Research and Technology, 234(4), 617–625. 10.1007/S00217-012-1674-2

Benković M., Bosiljkov T., Semić A., Ježek D., Srečec S. (2019) Influence of carob flour and carob bean gum on rheological properties of cocoa and carob pastry fillings. Foods, 8(2), 66. 10.3390/FOODS8020066

Berk E., Sumnu, G., Sahin S. (2017) Usage of Carob bean flour in gluten free cakes. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 57, 1909–1914. 10.3303/CET1757319

Burchi F, Fanzo J., Frison E. (2011) The role of food and nutrition system approaches in tackling hidden hunger. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(2), 358–73. 10.3390/ijerph8020358

Cencic A., and Chingwaru, W. (2010) The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health. Nutrients, 2(6), 611–25. 10.3390/nu2060611

Chen L.H., Chen I.C., Chen P.Y., Huang P.H. (2019) Efficacy of green onion root extract in cosmetics and skin care products. Bioscience Journal, 35(4), 1276–1289. 10.14393/BJ-V35N4A2019-45086

Circuncisão A.R., Catarino M.D., Cardoso S.M., Silva A.M.S. (2018) Minerals from Macroalgae origin: health benefits and risks for consumers. Marine Drugs, 16(11), 400. 10.3390/md16110400

Deda O., Begou O., Gika H., Theodoridis G., Agapiou A. (2023) Optimization of carob products preparation for targeted LC-MS/MS metabolomics analysis. Metabolites, 13, 645. 10.3390/metabo13050645

Dhillon B., Choudhary G., Sodhi N.S. (2020) A study on physicochemical, antioxidant and microbial properties of germinated wheat flour and its utilization in breads. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(8), 2800–2808. 10.1007/s13197-020-04311-x

García-Díez E., Sánchez-Ayora H., Blanch M., Ramos S., Martín M.A., Pérez-Jiménez J. (2022) Exploring a cocoa–carob blend as a functional food with decreased bitterness: characterization and sensory analysis. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie, 165, 113708–113708. 10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113708

Gnanasundari K., Srivignesh S., Rama Krishn, K., Manish Kumar, Ramesh Kumar. A. (2022) Integrated nutrient management in onion-a review. Ecology Environment Conservation, 28, 182–192. 10.53550/eec.2022.v28i07s.030

Gangrade N., Figueroa J., Leak T.M. (2021) Socioeconomic disparities in foods/beverages and nutrients consumed by U.S. adolescents when snacking: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2018. Nutrients, 13, 2530. 10.3390/nu13082530

Goesaert H., Brijs K., Veraverbeke W.S., Courtin C.M., Gebruers K., Delcour J.A. (2005) Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 16, 1–3, 12–30.

Difonzo G., Troilo M., Allegretta I., Pasqualone A., Caponio F. (2023) Grape skin and seed flours as functional ingredients of pizza: Potential and drawbacks related to nutritional, physicochemical and sensory attributes. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie, 175, 114494. 10.1016/j.lwt.2023.114494

Hartati Y., and Royanda R. (2021) The effect of substitution of mungabean flour and tapioca on the acceptability of pie shells as a source of fiber and potassium. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 521, 270–277. 10.2991/assehr.k.210415.056

Higazy M.M.E., EL. Diffrawy A.A.M., Zeitoun M.A.M., Shaltout O.E., Abou El-Yazeed A.M. (2018) Nutrients of carob and seed powders and its application in some food products. Journal of the Advances in Agricultural Researches, 23(1), 130–147.

Hussain I., and Uddin M.B. (2012) Optimization effect of germination on functional properties of wheat flour by response surface methodology. International Research Journal of Plant Science, 3, 31–37.

Ikram A., Khalid W., Wajeeha Zafar K.-u., Ali A., Afzal M.F., Aziz A., et al. (2023) Nutritional, biochemical, and clinical applications of carob: A review. Food Science & Nutrition, 11, 3641–3654. 10.1002/fsn3.3367

Ioannou G.D., Savva I.K., Christou A., Stavrou I.J., Kapnissi-Christodoulou C.P. (2023) Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity, and chemometric classification of carob pulp and products. Molecules, 28(5), 2269. 10.3390/molecules28052269

Issaoui M., Flamini G., and Delgado A.M. (2021) Sustainability opportunities for mediterranean food products through new formulations based on carob flour (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Sustainability, 13(14), 8026. 10.3390/SU13148026

Jaime L., Mollá E., Fernandez A.A., Martín-Cabrejas M.A., López-Andréu F.J., Esteban R.M. (2002) Structural carbohydrate differences and potential source of dietary fiber of onion (Allium cepa L.) Tissues. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(1), 122–128. 10.1021/JF010797T

Kim S.H., Yoon J.B., Han J., Seo Y.A., Kang B.H., Lee J., et al. (2023) Green onion (Allium fistulosum): an aromatic vegetable crop esteemed for food, Nutritional and Therapeutic Significance. Foods, 12(24), 4503. 10.3390/foods12244503

Kumar D., Kumar S., Bhadana N.K., Singh B., and Shekhar C. (2020) Vegetables: source of adequate health benefits. Annals of Horticulture,13, 124–130

Lar A.C., Erol N., Elgun M.S. (2013) Effect of carob flour substitution on chemical and functional properties of tarhana. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 37, 670–675. 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00708.x

Larson N.I., Miller J.M., Watts A.W., Story M.T., Neumark-Sztainer D.R. (2016) Adolescent snacking behaviors are associated with dietary intake and weight status. Journal of Nutrition, 146(7), 1348–1355. 10.3945/jn.116.230334

Li H.B., Cheng K.W., Wong C.C., Fan K.W., Chen F., Jiang Y. (2007) Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of selected microalgae. Food Chemistry, 102, 771–776. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.022

Liguori, L., Califano, R., Albanese, D., Raimo, F., Crescitelli, A., Di Matteo, M. (2017). Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of five white onions (Allium cepa L.) Landraces. Journal of Food Quality. 6873651. 10.1155/2017/6873651.

Lupu M.I., Canja C.M., Padureanu V., Boieriu A., Maier A., Badarau C., Padureanu C., Croitoru C., Alexa E., Poiana M.A. (2023). Insights on the potential of carob powder (Ceratonia siliqua L.) to improve the physico-chemical, biochemical and nutritional properties of wheat durum pasta. Journal of Applied Sciences, 13, 3788. 10.3390/app13063788

Machado M., Machado, S., Pimentel F.B., Freitas V., Alves R.C., Oliveira M.B.P.P. (2020) Amino acid profile and protein quality assessment of macroalgae produced in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system. Foods. 9(10), 1382. 10.3390/foods9101382

McRae M.P. (2017) Dietary fiber is beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular, disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 16(4), 289–299. 10.1016/j.jcm.2017.05.005

Mercer D.G. (2008) Solar drying in developing countries: possibilities and pitfalls, in G. L. Robertson, & J. R. Lupien (Eds.). Using food science and technology to improve nutrition and promote national development. International Union Food Science & Technology, pp. 1–14.

Mireault A., Mann L., Blotnicky K. et al. (2023) Evaluation of snacks consumed by young children in child care and home settings. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy. 17, 1. 10.1186/s40723-023-00106-7

Mišurcová L., Ambrožová J., Samek D. (2011) Seaweed lipids as nutraceuticals. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 64, 339–55. 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00027-2

Montowska M., Kowalczewski P.L., Rybicka I., Fornal E. (2019) Nutritional value, protein and peptide composition of edible cricket powders. Food Chemistry, 289, 130–138.

Moll P., Grossmann L., Kutzli I., Weiss J. (2019) Influence of energy density and viscosity on foam stability–a study with pea protein (Pisum sativum L.). Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 41(12), 1789–1796. 10.1080/01932691.2019.1635028

Özcan M.M., Arslan D., Gökçalik H. (2007) Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 58(8), 652–658. 10.1080/09637480701395549

Papageorgiou M., Paraskevopoulou A., Pantazi F., and Skendi A. (2020) Cake perception, texture and aroma profile as affected by wheat flour and cocoa replacement with carob flour. Foods, 9(11), 1586. 10.3390/foods9111586

Peñalver R., Lorenzo J.M., Ros G., Amarowicz R., Pateiro M., Nieto G. (2020) Seaweeds as a functional ingredient for a healthy diet. Marine Drugs, 18(6), 301. 10.3390/md18060301

Petkova N., Petrova I., Ivanov I., Mihov R., Hadjikinova R., Ognyanov M., Nikolova V. (2017) Nutritional and antioxidant potential of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) flour and evaluation of functional properties of its polysaccharide fraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 9(10), 2189–2195.

Rekowska E., Jurga-Szlempo B. , Żurawik A. (2018). Evaluation of content of selected macro-and micronutrients in edible parts in wintering onion cultivated for bunches. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis, 340(45), 89–98. 10.21005/AAPZ2018.45.1.09

Roman L., Gonzalez A., Espina T. Gómez M. (2017) Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore. 54(7), 2094–2103. 10.1007/S13197-017-2649-X

Saha D. (2013) Onion: anticancer sulfur compounds with high cancer chemo prevention potentials. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 2(3), 1–02. 10.4314/STAR.V2I3.98711

Sagar N.A., Pareek S., Benkeblia N., and Xiao J. (2022) Onion (Allium cepa L.) bioactives: chemistry, pharmacotherapeutic functions, and industrial applications. Food Frontiers, 1–33. 10.1002/fft2.135

Saura-Calixto F., Serrano J. Goni I. (2007) Intake and Bioaccessibility of Total Polyphenols in Whole Diet. Food Chemistry, 101, 492–501. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.006

Sharma N., Ferguson E.L., Upadhyay A., Zehner E., Filteau S., Pries A. (2019) Perceptions of commercial snack food and beverages for infant and young child feeding: a mixed-methods study among caregivers in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 15(4), e12711. 10.1111/mcn.12711

Senna J.P., Cardoso L., Magalhães Palermo L.C., Claudia R., Mansur. E. (2022) Extraction and evaluation of flamboyant mirim gum as a potential viscosifying agent for enhanced oil recovery fluids. BrJAC Brazilian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 10.30744/

Singh H., and Khar A. (2022) Potential of onion (Allium cepa) as traditional therapeutic and functional food: an update. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 92(11), 1291–1297.

Tounsi L., Karra S., Kechaou H., Kechaou N. (2017). Processing, physico-chemical and functional properties of carob molasses and powders, Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 11(3), 1440–1448.

Upadhyay R.K. (2017) Nutritional and therapeutic potential of allium vegetables. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 6(1), 18–37. 10.6000/1929-5634.2017.06.01.3

Vidal R., Rivera-Navarro J., Gravina L., Díez J., Franco M. (2024) Correlates of eating behaviors in adolescence: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Nutrition Reviews, 82(6), 749–776, 10.1093/nutrit/nuad088

Yaver E. (2022). Novel crackers incorporated with carob and green lentil flours: Physicochemical, textural, and sensory attributes. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 46, e16911. 10.1111/jfpp.16911

Yousif A.K., and Alghzawi H.M. (2000) Processing and characterization of carob powder. Food Chemistry, 69, 283–287.

Youssef M.K.E., El-Manfaloty M.M., Ali H.M. (2013). Assessment of proximate chemical composition, nutritional status, fatty acid composition and phenolic compounds of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Food and Public Health, 3(6), 304–308 10.5923/j.fph.20130306.06

Zielińska E., Karaś M., Baraniak B. (2018) Comparison of functional properties of edible insects and protein preparations thereof. LWT, 91, 168–174. 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.01.058